Preoperative predictors of inguinal lymph node metastases in vulvar cancer - A nationwide study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: A combination of tumour size, differentiation grade and location may identify a group of vulvar squamous cell cancer (VSCC) patients with a very low risk of inguinal lymph node metastasis. We aim to examine these findings in a large national cohort of VSCC patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Population based prospective data on VSCC patients treated with vulvectomy and primary groin surgery was obtained from the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database. Univariate chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Statistical tests were 2-sided. P-values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant.

RESULTS: In all, 388 VSCC patients were identified. Of these 264 (63.3%) were node negative and 121 (36.7%) node positive. Increasing tumour size (diameter ≤ 2 cm vs. > 2 to 4 cm), grade (1 vs. 2-3) and location of tumour to clitoris were all associated with a significantly increased risk of inguinal lymph node metastasis OR 2.81(95% CI 1.52-5.20), OR 3.19 (95% CI 1.77-5.74) and OR 2.74 (95% CI 1.56-5.20), respectively. Previous vulvar disease was not associated with lymph node metastasis. No lymph node metastasis was demonstrated in patients with grade 1 tumours, tumour size less than 2 cm and located outside the clitoris area (n = 51).

CONCLUSIONS: VSCC patients with grade 1 tumours, ≤ 2 cm and without clitoral involvement have a very low risk of inguinal lymph node metastasis. These patients may be spared inguinal lymph node staging to decrease operating time and peri- and postoperative morbidity in the future. However, studies validating our findings are needed.

Original languageEnglish
JournalGynecologic Oncology
Volume165
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)420-427
Number of pages8
ISSN0090-8258
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022

Keywords

  • Differentiation grade
  • Tumour location
  • Tumour size
  • Vulvar cancer

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