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Postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes: potential implications for bile-induced secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1

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OBJECTIVE: Recent preclinical work has suggested that postprandial flow of bile acids into the small intestine potentiates nutrient-induced glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1(GCG)) secretion via bile acid-induced activation of the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 in intestinal L cells. The notion of bile-induced GLP1 secretion combined with the findings of reduced postprandial gallbladder emptying in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) led us to speculate whether reduced postprandial GLP1 responses in some patients with T2DM arise as a consequence of diabetic gallbladder dysmotility.

DESIGN AND METHODS: In a randomised design, 15 patients with long-standing T2DM and 15 healthy age-, gender- and BMI-matched control subjects were studied during 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and three isocaloric (500 kcal) and isovolaemic (350 ml) liquid meals: i) 2.5 g fat, 107 g carbohydrate and 13 g protein; ii) 10 g fat, 93 g carbohydrate and 11 g protein; and iii) 40 g fat, 32 g carbohydrate and 3 g protein. Basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), cholecystokinin and gastrin were measured. Furthermore, gallbladder emptying and gastric emptying were examined.

RESULTS: Gallbladder emptying increased with increasing meal fat content, but no intergroup differences were demonstrated. GIP and GLP1 responses were comparable among the groups with GIP levels being higher following high-fat meals, whereas GLP1 secretion was similar after both OGTT and meals.

CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, patients with T2DM exhibited normal gallbladder emptying to meals with a wide range of fat content. Incretin responses were similar to that in controls, and an association with postprandial gallbladder contraction could not be demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies
Volume171
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)407-19
Number of pages13
ISSN0804-4643
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2014

ID: 44614892