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Pharmacokinetics of salmeterol and its main metabolite α-hydroxysalmeterol after acute and chronic dry powder inhalation in exercising endurance-trained men: Implications for doping control

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As of 2020, use of beta 2 -agonist salmeterol is restricted by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and is only permitted by inhalation at therapeutic doses not exceeding 200 μg in 24 h. In contrast to beta 2 -agonists salbutamol and formoterol, WADA has not established a urine threshold for salmeterol despite its muscle hypertrophic actions observed in animals. Herein, we investigated plasma (0-4 h) and urine (0-24 h) concentrations (by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry [UHPLC-MS/MS]) of salmeterol and α-hydroxysalmeterol after dry powder inhalation at supratherapeutic (400 μg) and high therapeutic (200 μg) doses, and after seven consecutive days of therapeutic inhalation (200 μg × day -1 ) in 11 healthy endurance-trained men. During each trial, participants inhaled salmeterol before 1½ h moderate-intensity cycling. Mean ± SD maximum urine concentrations of salmeterol unadjusted for specific gravity reached 4.0 ± 1.6, 2.1 ± 1.5, and 2.2 ± 1.1 ng × ml -1 for 400 μg, 200 μg, and seven consecutive days of 200 μg, respectively, with corresponding maximum urine concentrations of α-hydroxysalmeterol being 11.6 ± 6.1, 5.7 ± 4.6, and 6.5 ± 2.6 ng × ml -1 . Within the relevant window for doping control (first 6 h post-inhalation), the present data (119 samples), along with 64 biobank urine samples, showed that a combined salmeterol and α-hydroxysalmeterol urine threshold with equal cut-offs of 3.3 ng × ml -1 was superior to a salmeterol-only threshold to discriminate therapeutic (200 μg) from supratherapeutic use (400 μg) with a sensitivity of 24% with 0% false positives when applying the WADA technical document (TD2019DL.v2) method of specific gravity adjustment. Thus, a combination of urine salmeterol and α-hydroxysalmeterol concentrations may be suitable for discriminating between therapeutic and supratherapeutic prohibited inhalation of salmeterol.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDrug Testing and Analysis
Volume13
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)747-761
Number of pages15
ISSN1942-7603
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021

    Research areas

  • anti&#8208, doping, beta2&#8208, adrenoceptor agonist, beta&#8208, agonist, LABA, pharmacology, beta2-adrenoceptor agonist, anti-doping, beta-agonist

ID: 61950030