Perivalvular Extension of Infective Endocarditis after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

Vassili Panagides, David Del Val, Mohamed Abdel-Wahab, Norman Mangner, Eric Durand, Nikolaj Ihlemann, Marina Urena, Costanza Pellegrini, Francesco Giannini, Tomasz Gasior, Wojtek Wojakowski, Martin Landt, Vincent Auffret, Jan Malte Sinning, Asim N Cheema, Luis Nombela-Franco, Chekrallah Chamandi, Francisco Campelo-Parada, Erika Munoz-Garcia, Howard C HerrmannLuca Testa, Kim Won-Keun, Juan Carlos Castillo, Alberto Alperi, Didier Tchetche, Antonio L Bartorelli, Samir Kapadia, Stefan Stortecky, Ignacio Amat-Santos, Harindra C Wijeysundera, John Lisko, Enrique Gutiérrez-Ibanes, Vicenç Serra, Luisa Salido, Abdullah Alkhodair, Ugolino Livi, Tarun Chakravarty, Stamatios Lerakis, Victoria Vilalta, Ander Regueiro, Rafael Romaguera, Utz Kappert, Marco Barbanti, Jean-Bernard Masson, Frédéric Maes, Claudia Fiorina, Antonio Miceli, Susheel Kodali, Henrique B Ribeiro, Lars Søndergaard, Søndergaard, Lars

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been associated with a dismal prognosis. However, scarce data exist on IE perivalvular extension (PEE) in such patients.

METHODS: This multicenter study included 579 patients who had the diagnosis of definite IE at a median of 171 (53-421) days following TAVR. PEE was defined as the presence of an intracardiac abscess, pseudoaneurysm, or fistula.

RESULTS: A total of 105 patients (18.1%) were diagnosed with PEE (perivalvular abscess, pseudoaneurysm, fistula, or a combination in 87, 7, 7, and 4 patients, respectively). A history of chronic kidney disease (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.27-3.41; P = .003) and IE secondary to coagulase-negative staphylococci (ORadj, 2.71; 95% CI: 1.57-4.69; P < .001) were associated with an increased risk of PEE. Surgery was performed at index IE episode in 34 patients (32.4%) with PEE (vs 15.2% in patients without PEE, P < .001). In-hospital and 2-year mortality rates among PEE-IE patients were 36.5% and 69.4%, respectively. Factors independently associated with an increased mortality were the occurrence of other complications (stroke post-TAVR, acute renal failure, septic shock) and the lack of surgery at index IE hospitalization (padj < 0.05 for all).

CONCLUSIONS: PEE occurred in about one-fifth of IE post-TAVR patients, with the presence of coagulase-negative staphylococci and chronic kidney disease determining an increased risk. Patients with PEE-IE exhibited high early and late mortality rates, and surgery during IE hospitalization seemed to be associated with better outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Volume75
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)638-646
Number of pages9
ISSN1058-4838
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Sep 2022

Keywords

  • Abscess
  • Aneurysm, False/complications
  • Coagulase
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial/epidemiology
  • Endocarditis/epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications
  • Risk Factors
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement/adverse effects
  • heart surgery
  • TAVI
  • TAVR
  • infective endocarditis

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