Perceived Benefits, Barriers, and Facilitators of a Digital Patient-Reported Outcomes Tool for Routine Diabetes Care: Protocol for a National, Multicenter, Mixed Methods Implementation Study

Søren Eik Skovlund, Antonio Nicolucci, Nina Balk-Møller, Dorthe B Berthelsen, Charlotte Glümer, Hans Perrild, Pernille Kjær, Lise Mellergaard Nørgaard, Lise Havbæk Troelsen, Anna Pietraszek, Danielle Hessler, Sherrie Kaplan, Niels Ejskjær

3 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that digital patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires and PRO-based decision support tools may help improve the active engagement of people with diabetes in self-care, thereby improving the quality of care. However, many barriers still exist for the real-world effectiveness and implementation of such PRO tools in routine care. Furthermore, limited research has evaluated the acceptability, feasibility, and benefits of such tools across different health care settings.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and perceived benefits of the Danish digital PRO diabetes tool in different health care settings in Denmark and to determine the factors affecting its implementation. Furthermore, the study evaluates the psychometric characteristics of the Danish PRO Diabetes Questionnaire and the validity of the scoring algorithms for dialogue support. The objective of this study is to guide the ongoing optimization of the PRO diabetes tool, its implementation, and the design of future randomized controlled effectiveness studies.

METHODS: We designed a multicenter, mixed methods, single-arm acceptability-feasibility implementation study protocol to contribute to the real-world pilot test of a new digital PRO diabetes tool in routine diabetes care. The use of the tool involves two main steps. First, the people with diabetes will complete a digital PRO Diabetes Questionnaire in the days before a routine diabetes visit. Second, the health care professional (HCP) will use a digital PRO tool to review the PRO results together with the people with diabetes during the visit. The PRO diabetes tool is designed to encourage and support people to take an active role for the people with diabetes in their own care and to expedite the delivery of person-centered, collaborative, and coordinated care.

RESULTS: A multicenter pilot study protocol and psychometrically designed digital data collection tools for evaluation were developed and deployed as part of a national evaluation of a new digital PRO diabetes intervention. A total of 598 people with diabetes and 34 HCPs completed the study protocol by April 1, 2021.

CONCLUSIONS: A large-scale, mixed methods, multicenter study for evaluating the use of the nationally developed PRO Diabetes Questionnaire in routine care across all health care sectors in Denmark by using the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) model as a framework has been designed and is ongoing. This study is expected to provide new important and detailed information about the real-world acceptability, perceived relevance, and benefits of the PRO diabetes tool among a large heterogeneous population of people with diabetes in Denmark and HCPs in different care settings. The results will be used to further improve the PRO tool, design implementation facilitation support strategies, and design future controlled effectiveness studies.


Original languageEnglish
Article numbere28391
JournalJMIR research protocols
Issue number9
Pages (from-to)e28391
Publication statusPublished - 3 Sept 2021


  • Diabetes
  • Digital health
  • Feasibility
  • Internet-administered
  • Mixed-method research
  • Mobile phone
  • Multisector care
  • Patient-centered care
  • Patient-reported outcomes
  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes


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