Pain provocation tests and clinical entities in male football players with longstanding groin pain are associated with pain intensity and disability

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Clinical examination of male football players with longstanding groin pain can be considered difficult. Pain provocation tests are used to examine and classify longstanding groin pain into clinical entities as adductor-, iliopsoas-, inguinal-, and pubic-related. It is unknown if pain provocation tests and clinical entities are associated with pain intensity and disability.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate if the number of positive pain provocation tests and clinical entities are associated with pain intensity and disability, measured by the Copenhagen 5-Second Squeeze Test (5SST) and the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS), respectively.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

METHOD: Forty male football players (age: mean 24 years [SD: 3.2]; height: mean 182 cm [SD: 5.7]; weight: mean 78 Kg [SD: 6.6]) with longstanding groin pain for a median of 8.5 months (IQR: 4-36) were included. The players underwent a bilateral groin examination with 33 pain provocation tests and were classified with clinical entities (0-7) based on the test findings.

RESULTS: The number of positive pain provocation tests (median 10, range 2-23) correlated with pain intensity (5SST: rs = 0.70 [95% CI: 0.50, 0.83]) and disability (HAGOS subscales Sport: rs =-0.62 [95% CI: -0.81, -0.36], Pain: rs = -0.38 [95% CI: -0.69, -0.06], Symptoms: rs = 0.52 [95% CI: -0.73, -0.24], ADL: rs = -0.48 [95% CI: -0.71, -0.18]). The number of clinical entities (median 3, range: 1-7) showed similar but weaker correlations to pain intensity and disability.

CONCLUSIONS: In male football players with longstanding groin pain, the number of positive pain provocation tests and clinical entities shows weak to strong correlations with pain intensity and disability. Consequently, when pain intensity and disability are severe, a higher number of pain provocation tests may be positive, and more clinical entities may be present.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102719
JournalMusculoskeletal science & practice
Volume63
Pages (from-to)102719
ISSN2468-7812
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023

Keywords

  • Diagnosis
  • Groin pain
  • Pain provocation tests
  • Soccer

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