Paediatric-onset immune-mediated inflammatory disease is associated with an increased mortality risk-A nationwide study

Mikkel Malham*, Sabine Jansson, Helene Ingels, Marianne Hørby Jørgensen, Naja Hulvej Rod, Vibeke Wewer, Matthew P Fox

*Corresponding author for this work
2 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Paediatric-onset immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (pIMID) show more aggressive phenotypes than when diagnosed in adults. However, data on mortality are often extrapolated from adult studies.

AIM: To estimate the effect of pIMID on mortality.

METHODS: In a population-based cohort study using the nationwide Danish healthcare registers, we included all patients diagnosed with pIMID in Denmark from 1980 to 2018. PIMID were defined as ICD codes indicative of autoimmune hepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, lupus erythematosus, or vasculitis registered before age 18 years. All-cause mortality was the primary outcome; cause-specific mortality was the secondary outcome. We used Cox survival analysis to estimate hazard ratios (HR), and Aalen survival analysis to estimate rate differences.

RESULTS: We included 11,581 individuals diagnosed with pIMID and 99,665 reference individuals, accounting for 1,371,994 person-years of follow-up. Median and interquartile (IQR) age at diagnosis was 12.6 (7.9-15.9) years. During follow-up, 152 patients with pIMID and 316 reference individuals died; adjusted HR (aHR) was 3.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1-4.7). This corresponded to 6.9 (95% CI: 5.3-8.5) additional deaths per 10,000 person-years. The strongest associations were found for gastrointestinal diseases (aHR 22.8; 95% CI 9.6-64.1), gastrointestinal cancers (aHR 19.2; 95% CI 5.0-74.2) and lymphoproliferative disorders (aHR 6.8; 95% CI 2.8-16.8).

CONCLUSION: Patients diagnosed with pIMID have a fourfold higher risk of mortality when followed into early adulthood compared with reference individuals. This underlines the severe disease course of pIMID and highlights the need for multidisciplinary care.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAlimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Issue number12
Pages (from-to)1551-1558
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Adolescent
  • Age of Onset
  • Cause of Death
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Denmark/epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation/mortality
  • Male
  • Registries
  • Risk Factors


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