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One-year evolution and variability in multiple-breath washout indices in children and young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia

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Background and objective: Cross-sectional and longer-term studies have demonstrated abnormal yet stable multiple-breath inert gas washout (MBW) indices in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). This study aimed to assess the intermediate term evolution and the between-occasion variability of MBW indices in PCD over 1 year. Methods: Children and young adults with a confirmed diagnosis of PCD were included in this single-centre, prospective, observational, longitudinal study. Over 1 year, nitrogen (N2) MBW and spirometry were performed at three occasions during ordinary scheduled outpatient visits. Trends and variability in lung clearance index (LCI), moment ratios, normalized N2 concentration at six lung volume turnovers, and regional ventilation inhomogeneity indices of the conducting and intra-acinar airways (Scond*VT and Sacin*VT) were analysed using linear mixed models. Results: Forty-two patients, aged 6-29 years (median: 15.4), performed 116 N2 MBW test occasions and 96.6% were technically acceptable. A minimal, although significant, increase in LCI over 1 year (mean: 0.51 units, 95% CI: 0.12-0.91, p = 0.01) was found; while, all other N2 MBW indices and FEV1 remained unchanged. A moderate correlation was observed between LCI and FEV1 (r = -0.47, p = 0.0001). The limits of agreement between tests 1 year apart were for LCI: -1.96 to 2.98; Scond*VT: ± 0.039; Sacin*VT: -0.108 to 0.128. Conclusions: Children and young adults with PCD managed at a specialist centre showed slightly, but significant, increasing LCI and otherwise unchanged ventilation inhomogeneity indices and dynamic volumes over the intermediate term of 1 year. Estimates of the variability of N2 MBW indices may inform sample size calculations of future randomized controlled trials.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Clinical Respiratory Journal
Volume6
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)1591841
ISSN2001-8525
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

ID: 59078832