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Neuroimmunological investigations of cerebrospinal fluid in patients with recent onset depression - a study protocol

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BACKGROUND: A proinflammatory response has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression in a subgroup of patients. However, comprehensive largescale studies on neuroimmunological investigations of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are lacking and no largescale longitudinal CSF studies comparing patients with depression to healthy controls currently exist.

METHODS: A longitudinal case-control study including at least 100 patients with first time depression (ICD-10: F32) within the past year with ongoing symptoms and at least 100 sex and age matched healthy controls with collection of CSF, blood, and fecal samples. All individuals will be evaluated by neurological examination including neurological soft signs, interviewed for psychopathology assessment and have symptomatology evaluated by relevant rating scales. Level of functioning and quality of life will be evaluated by a panel of interview questions and rating scales, and cognitive function assessed by a relevant test battery. In addition, a large number of potential confounders will be registered (BMI, smoking status, current medication etc.). Primary outcomes: CSF white cell count, CSF/serum albumin ratio, CSF total protein levels, IgG index, CSF levels of IL-6 and IL-8, and the prevalence of any CNS-reactive autoantibody in CSF and/or blood.

SECONDARY OUTCOMES: exploratory analyses of a wide range of neuroimmunological markers and specific autoantibodies. Power calculations are computed for all primary outcomes based on previous CSF studies including patients with depression and healthy controls.

DISCUSSION: This study will represent the hitherto largest investigation of CSF in patients with recent onset depression compared to healthy controls. We expect to elucidate neuroimmunological alterations in individuals with depression and characterize an immunological profile paving the way for the development of effective treatments based on biomarkers.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is approved by The Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics (Capital Region, j.no: H-16030985) and The Danish Data Protection Agency (j.no: RHP-2016-020, I-Suite no.: 04945).

Original languageEnglish
Article number35
JournalBMC Psychiatry
Volume22
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)35
ISSN1471-244X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jan 2022

Bibliographical note

© 2022. The Author(s).

ID: 70982465