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Multiplex assessment of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in multiple sclerosis

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BACKGROUND: Several roles for biomarkers in multiple sclerosis (MS) exist, including aiding in the diagnosis of MS, predicting disease activity or progression, and defining individuals who may be responsive to specific treatments. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of soluble B cell maturation antigen (sBCMA) and soluble CD27 (sCD27) have been shown to be sensitive biomarkers of inflammation in MS and are thought to reflect B and T cell activity, respectively. Furthermore, chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) have been suggested as measures of innate immune cell activity in MS. In this study we sought to validate measurements of these CSF biomarkers of inflammation using multiplex bead-based immunoassays.

METHODS: By using commercially available multiplex bead-based assays, concentrations of sBCMA, sCD27, sCD14 and CHI3L1 were determined in CSF from 22 patients with either untreated clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) or relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 13 patients with RRMS treated with either natalizumab or alemtuzumab, and 35 symptomatic controls (SC).

RESULTS: Increased CSF concentrations of sBCMA, sCD27 and CHI3L1 were observed in untreated MS patients compared to symptomatic controls (all p < 0.001). Concentrations of sBCMA (p = 0.02) and sCD27 (p = 0.0003) were higher in treated MS patients than in SC, and levels of sBCMA (p = 0.02) and sCD27 (p = 0.01) were even higher in untreated compared to treated patients. sCD14 levels did not differ between the groups. Levels of sBCMA and sCD27 correlated strongly with each other (Spearman's rho: 0.98, p < 0.0001) as well as with the IgG index (Spearman's rho: 0.91, p < 0.0001 and 0.90, p < 0.0001, respectively). ROC curve analysis showed a high discriminatory potential for sBCMA and sCD27 with areas under the curve of 0.88 and 0.93, respectively.

CONCLUSION: We confirm reports of elevated concentrations of sBCMA, sCD27 and CHI3L1 in CSF from untreated MS patients compared to SC. sBCMA and sCD27 levels were elevated in both treated and untreated MS patients compared to SC, but highest in untreated patients. Finally, CSF concentrations of sBCMA, sCD27 and the IgG index correlated strongly, suggesting that the cellular source of sCD27 and sBCMA includes memory B cells, plasmablasts and plasma cells.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMultiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
Volume45
Pages (from-to)102391
ISSN2211-0348
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020

ID: 61517508