Multicenter Study of Endocarditis After Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Replacement

Doff B McElhinney, Yulin Zhang, Jamil A Aboulhosn, Brian H Morray, Elżbieta Katarzyna Biernacka, Athar M Qureshi, Alejandro J Torres, Shabana Shahanavaz, Bryan H Goldstein, Allison K Cabalka, Holly Bauser-Heaton, Stanimir Georgiev, Felix Berger, Oscar Millan-Iturbe, Lynn F Peng, Aimee K Armstrong, Daniel S Levi, Aneta Fronczak-Jakubczyk, Lars Sondergaard, Jason H AndersonDietmar Schranz, Thomas K Jones, John P Cheatham, Stephan Schubert, Peter Ewert


BACKGROUND: Endocarditis has emerged as one of the most impactful adverse events after transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR), but there is limited information about risk factors for and outcomes of this complication.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for and outcomes of endocarditis in a large multicenter cohort.

METHODS: The authors established an international registry focused on characterizing endocarditis after TPVR, including the incidence, risk factors, characteristics, and outcomes.

RESULTS: Investigators submitted data for 2,476 patients who underwent TPVR between July 2005 and March 2020 and were followed for 8,475 patient-years. In total, 182 patients were diagnosed with endocarditis a median of 2.7 years after TPVR, for a cumulative incidence of 9.5% (95% CI: 7.9%-11.1%) at 5 years and 16.9% (95% CI: 14.2%-19.8%) at 8 years (accounting for competing risks: death, heart transplant, and explant) and an annualized incidence of 2.2 per 100 patient-years. Staphylococcus aureus and Viridans group Streptococcus species together accounted for 56% of cases. Multivariable analysis confirmed that younger age, a previous history of endocarditis, and a higher residual gradient were risk factors for endocarditis, but transcatheter pulmonary valve type was not. Overall, right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reintervention was less often to treat endocarditis than for other reasons, but valve explant was more often caused by endocarditis. Endocarditis was severe in 44% of patients, and 12 patients (6.6%) died, nearly all of whom were infected with Staphylococcus aureus.

CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of endocarditis in this multicenter registry was constant over time and consistent with prior smaller studies. The findings of this study, along with ongoing efforts to understand and mitigate risk, will be critical to improve the lifetime management of patients with heart disease involving the RVOT. Although endocarditis can be a serious adverse outcome, TPVR remains an important tool in the management of RVOT dysfunction.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)575-589
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 10 Aug 2021


  • Adult
  • Cardiac Catheterization/methods
  • Endocarditis/etiology
  • Female
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • International Cooperation
  • Male
  • Pulmonary Valve/surgery
  • Registries/statistics & numerical data
  • Reoperation/methods
  • Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification
  • Ventricular Outflow Obstruction/etiology
  • Viridans Streptococci/isolation & purification


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