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Monocyte count and soluble markers of monocyte activation in people living with HIV and uninfected controls

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BACKGROUND: Monocytes play an important role in inflammation, and monocytosis and monocyte activation are features of chronic inflammation. We aimed to investigate if HIV status was associated with monocyte count and monocyte activation and to assess the relationship between monocyte count and monocyte activation markers and HIV-related factors.

METHODS: Persons living with HIV (PLWH) with measured monocyte count and sCD14 and sCD163 were included from the Copenhagen Comorbidity in HIV infection (COCOMO) study and matched 1:5 on sex and age with uninfected controls. In addition, 74 uninfected individuals from COCOMO with measured sCD14 and sCD163 were included. Identical protocols and equipment were used to determine monocyte counts and monocyte activation in PLWH and uninfected controls. Linear regression adjusted for age, sex, smoking and waist-to-hip-ratio was used to analyze the association between possible risk factors and monocyte outcomes.

RESULTS: We included 871 PLWH and 4355 uninfected controls. PLWH had - 0.021 [- 0.031 - 0.011] × 109/L) lower monocyte count than uninfected controls, and in adjusted analyses HIV status was independently associated with - 0.035 [- 0.045, - 0.025] × 109/L lower monocyte count. In contrast, PLWH had higher sCD163 and sCD14 concentrations than uninfected controls. After adjustment, HIV-status was associated with higher sCD14 and sCD163 concentrations (588 [325, 851] ng/ml, and 194 [57, 330] ng/ml, respectively).

CONCLUSION: PLWH had lower monocyte counts than controls, but the absolute difference was small, and any clinical impact is likely limited. In contrast, concentrations of monocyte activation markers, previously implicated as drivers of non-AIDS comorbidity, were higher in PLWH than in controls.

Original languageEnglish
Article number451
JournalBMC Infectious Diseases
Volume22
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
ISSN1471-2334
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2022

Bibliographical note

© 2022. The Author(s).

ID: 78044829