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Microdosing psychedelics: More questions than answers? An overview and suggestions for future research

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  • Kim Pc Kuypers
  • Livia Ng
  • David Erritzoe
  • Gitte M Knudsen
  • Charles D Nichols
  • David E Nichols
  • Luca Pani
  • Anaïs Soula
  • David Nutt
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BACKGROUND: In the past few years, the issue of 'microdosing' psychedelics has been openly discussed in the public arena where claims have been made about their positive effect on mood state and cognitive processes such as concentration. However, there are very few scientific studies that have specifically addressed this issue, and there is no agreed scientific consensus on what microdosing is.

AIM: This critique paper is designed to address questions that need to be answered by future scientific studies and to offer guidelines for these studies.

APPROACH: Owing to its proximity for a possible approval in clinical use and short-lasting pharmacokinetics, our focus is predominantly on psilocybin. Psilocybin is allegedly, next to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), one of the two most frequently used psychedelics to microdose. Where relevant and available, data for other psychedelic drugs are also mentioned.

CONCLUSION: It is concluded that while most anecdotal reports focus on the positive experiences with microdosing, future research should also focus on potential risks of (multiple) administrations of a psychedelic in low doses. To that end, (pre)clinical studies including biological (e.g. heart rate, receptor turnover and occupancy) as well as cognitive (e.g. memory, attention) parameters have to be conducted and will shed light on the potential negative consequences microdosing could have.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of psychopharmacology
Volume33
Issue number9
Pages (from-to)1039-1057
Number of pages19
ISSN0269-8811
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019

ID: 59012480