Mechanisms Preserving Insulin Action during High Dietary Fat Intake

Anne-Marie Lundsgaard, Jacob B Holm, Kim A Sjøberg, Kirstine N Bojsen-Møller, Lene S Myrmel, Even Fjære, Benjamin A H Jensen, Trine S Nicolaisen, Janne R Hingst, Sine L Hansen, Sophia Doll, Philip E Geyer, Atul S Desmukh, Jens J Holst, Lise Madsen, Karsten Kristiansen, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Erik A Richter, Bente Kiens

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Prolonged intervention studies investigating molecular metabolism are necessary for a deeper understanding of dietary effects on health. Here we provide mechanistic information about metabolic adaptation to fat-rich diets. Healthy, slightly overweight men ingested saturated or polyunsaturated fat-rich diets for 6 weeks during weight maintenance. Hyperinsulinemic clamps combined with leg balance technique revealed unchanged peripheral insulin sensitivity, independent of fatty acid type. Both diets increased fat oxidation potential in muscle. Hepatic insulin clearance increased, while glucose production, de novo lipogenesis, and plasma triacylglycerol decreased. High fat intake changed the plasma proteome in the immune-supporting direction and the gut microbiome displayed changes at taxonomical and functional level with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). In mice, eucaloric feeding of human PUFA and saturated fatty acid diets lowered hepatic triacylglycerol content compared with low-fat-fed control mice, and induced adaptations in the liver supportive of decreased gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. Intake of fat-rich diets thus induces extensive metabolic adaptations enabling disposition of dietary fat without metabolic complications.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCell Metabolism
Volume29
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)50-63.e4
ISSN1550-4131
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Jan 2019

Keywords

  • de novo lipogenesis
  • dietary fat
  • hepatic glucose production
  • insulin sensitivity
  • insulin signaling
  • lipoprotein metabolism
  • liver
  • metabolic regulation
  • skeletal muscle
  • substrate oxidation

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