Measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella-zoster virus serology and infections in solid organ transplant recipients during the first year post-transplantation

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Mumps, measles, rubella, and varicella zoster (MMRV) viruses may cause severe infections in seronegative adult solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, but can be prevented by vaccination. We aimed to determine MMRV serostatus in adult SOT recipients before and 1 year after transplantation as well as evidence of MMRV infections in a large, prospective cohort of SOT recipients.

METHODS: This was a prospective study of 1182 adult SOT recipients included in the Management of Posttransplant Infections in Collaborating Hospitals (MATCH) cohort from 2011 to 2017 with a 1-year follow-up. Systematic monitoring of MMRV serology was performed prior to transplantation and 1 year posttransplantation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to confirm viral replication in SOT recipients presenting with clinical evidence of infection.

RESULTS: Among 1182 adult SOT recipients, 28 (2.4%), 77 (6.5%), 65 (5.5%), and 22 (1.9%) were seronegative for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella zoster virus (VZV), respectively, and 165 (14%) were seronegative for at least 1 of the MMRV viruses. One year posttransplantation, 29 of 823 (3.5%) of seropositive SOT recipients had seroreverted, and 63 of 111 (57%) of seronegative SOT recipients seroconverted for at least 1 MMRV virus. No evidence of measles, mumps, or rubella infection was found, but 8 (0.7%) SOT recipients developed symptoms and had a positive VZV PCR.

CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of SOT recipients were seronegative for at least 1 of the MMRV viruses. MMRV infections in SOT recipients may disseminate and become fatal, and although only a few cases of VZV infection were detected, results from this study suggest increase attention toward vaccination of patients waiting for SOT.

Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Volume73
Issue number11
Pages (from-to)e3733-e3739
ISSN1058-4838
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Immunization
  • Organ transplant
  • Serology
  • Virus infection

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