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Loss of sucrase-isomaltase function increases acetate levels and improves metabolic health in Greenlandic cohorts

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BACKGROUND & AIMS: The sucrase-isomaltase (SI) c.273_274delAG loss-of-function variant is common in Arctic populations and causes congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, which is an inability to break down and absorb sucrose and isomaltose. Children with this condition experience gastrointestinal symptoms when dietary sucrose is introduced. We aimed to describe the health of adults with sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.

METHODS: The association between c.273_274delAG and phenotypes related to metabolic health was assessed in 2 cohorts of Greenlandic adults (n = 4922 and n = 1629). A sucrase-isomaltase knockout (Sis-KO) mouse model was used to further elucidate the findings.

RESULTS: Homozygous carriers of the variant had a markedly healthier metabolic profile than the remaining population, including lower body mass index (β [standard error], -2.0 [0.5] kg/m2; P = 3.1 × 10-5), body weight (-4.8 [1.4] kg; P = 5.1 × 10-4), fat percentage (-3.3% [1.0%]; P = 3.7 × 10-4), fasting triglyceride (-0.27 [0.07] mmol/L; P = 2.3 × 10-6), and remnant cholesterol (-0.11 [0.03] mmol/L; P = 4.2 × 10-5). Further analyses suggested that this was likely mediated partly by higher circulating levels of acetate observed in homozygous carriers (β [standard error], 0.056 [0.002] mmol/L; P = 2.1 × 10-26), and partly by reduced sucrose uptake, but not lower caloric intake. These findings were verified in Sis-KO mice, which, compared with wild-type mice, were leaner on a sucrose-containing diet, despite similar caloric intake, had significantly higher plasma acetate levels in response to a sucrose gavage, and had lower plasma glucose level in response to a sucrose-tolerance test.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that sucrase-isomaltase constitutes a promising drug target for improvement of metabolic health, and that the health benefits are mediated by reduced dietary sucrose uptake and possibly also by higher levels of circulating acetate.

Original languageEnglish
JournalGastroenterology
Volume162
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)1171-1182.e3
ISSN0016-5085
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Research areas

  • Drug Target, Genetics, Loss of Function, Metabolic Health, Sucrase-Isomaltase

ID: 70140095