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Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of brain tumor: the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)

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  • Zorana J. Andersen
  • Marie Pedersen
  • Gudrun Weinmayr
  • Massimo Stafoggia
  • Claudia Galassi
  • Jeanette T. Jørgensen
  • Johan N. Sommar
  • Bertil Forsberg
  • David Olsson
  • Bente Oftedal
  • Gunn Marit Aasvang
  • Per Schwarze
  • Andrei Pyko
  • Göran Pershagen
  • Michal Korek
  • Ulf De Faire
  • Claes Göran Östenson
  • Laura Fratiglioni
  • Kirsten T. Eriksen
  • Aslak H. Poulsen
  • Anne Tjønneland
  • Elvira Vaclavik Braüner
  • Petra H. Peeters
  • Bas Bueno-De-Mesquita
  • Andrea Jaensch
  • Gabriele Nagel
  • Alois Lang
  • Meng Wang
  • Ming Yi Tsai
  • Sara Grioni
  • Alessandro Marcon
  • Vittorio Krogh
  • Fulvio Ricceri
  • Carlotta Sacerdote
  • Enrica Migliore
  • Roel Vermeulen
  • Ranjeet Sokhi
  • Menno Keuken
  • Kees De Hoogh
  • Rob Beelen
  • Paolo Vineis
  • Giulia Cesaroni
  • Bert Brunekreef
  • Gerard Hoek
  • Ole Raaschou-Nielsen
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Background: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and brain tumor risk is sparse and inconsistent.

Methods: In 12 cohorts from 6 European countries, individual estimates of annual mean air pollution levels at the baseline residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5-10 μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations of air pollutant concentrations and traffic intensity with total, malignant, and nonmalignant brain tumor, in separate Cox regression models, adjusting for risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses.

Results: Of 282194 subjects from 12 cohorts, 466 developed malignant brain tumors during 12 years of follow-up. Six of the cohorts also had data on nonmalignant brain tumor, where among 106786 subjects, 366 developed brain tumor: 176 nonmalignant and 190 malignant. We found a positive, statistically nonsignificant association between malignant brain tumor and PM2.5 absorbance (hazard ratio and 95% CI: 1.67; 0.89-3.14 per 10-5/m3), and weak positive or null associations with the other pollutants. Hazard ratio for PM2.5 absorbance (1.01; 0.38-2.71 per 10-5/m3) and all other pollutants were lower for nonmalignant than for malignant brain tumors.

Conclusion: We found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 absorbance indicating traffic-related air pollution and malignant brain tumors, and no association with overall or nonmalignant brain tumors.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNeuro-Oncology
Volume20
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)420-432
Number of pages13
ISSN1522-8517
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Feb 2018

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology.

    Research areas

  • air pollution, brain cancer, brain tumor, traffic

ID: 57255556