BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an androgen receptor inhibitor with a demonstrated overall survival benefit in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. A phase 2 study of enzalutamide monotherapy in patients with hormone-naïve prostate cancer (HNPC) showed a high response rate for the prespecified primary endpoint (ie, prostate-specific antigen [PSA] response at week 25), regardless of metastases at baseline, and favorable tolerability.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term efficacy and safety of enzalutamide monotherapy at 1 and 2 yr.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Open-label, single-arm study in patients with HNPC and noncastrate testosterone (≥230 ng/dl).
INTERVENTION: Oral enzalutamide 160mg/d until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND ANALYSIS: PSA response (≥80% decline from baseline) assessed at 1 yr (49 wk) and 2 yr (97 wk).
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The median (range) age was 73 (48-86) yr and 26 patients (39%) presented with metastases at study entry. Of 67 patients enrolled, 45 (67%) remained on enzalutamide at week 97. For patients remaining on therapy, the PSA response rate at week 97 was 100% (95% confidence interval 92-100%). Of 26 patients with metastases at baseline, 13 (50%) had a complete and four (15.4%) had a partial response as best overall tumor response up to 97 wk on treatment. There was overall maintenance of total-body bone mineral density (BMD) and moderate changes in lean and fat body mass at 49 and 97 wk. The most common adverse events were gynecomastia, nipple pain, fatigue, and hot flushes. The study limitations include lack of a control group and of endocrine, glycemic, and lipid data at 97 wk.
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term enzalutamide monotherapy in men with noncastrate HNPC is associated with large sustained reductions in PSA, signals indicating a favorable tumor response, and favorable safety/tolerability profile, with relatively small negative effects on total-body BMD.
PATIENT SUMMARY: In this long-term follow-up of the efficacy and safety of enzalutamide monotherapy in patients with hormone-naïve prostate cancer, enzalutamide maintained long-term reductions in prostate-specific antigen, with a minimal impact on total-body bone mineral density.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01302041.
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - Nov 2015|