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Leucoencefalopatía megalencefálica con quistes: importancia de la descripción clínica en la era genética

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  • V Ballesteros-Cogollos
  • M Morell-García
  • M Aleu Pérez-Gramunt
  • E Montesinos-Sanchís
  • R Mirón-Mombiela
  • J C Martínez-Martínez
  • M Tomás-Vila
  • F Martínez-Castellano
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INTRODUCTION: Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with cysts is a leukodystrophy of genetic origin that produces an alteration in the water and ion homeostasis in the brain, generating vacuolar forms and chronic oedema in the white matter with progressive neurological deterioration. It should be suspected in infants who present progressive macrocephaly during the first year of life, motor retardation and characteristic findings in magnetic resonance brain scans.

CASE REPORT: We report the case of a girl who was followed up from the age of 9 months due to progressive macrocephaly and delayed psychomotor development and brain MRI findings consistent with megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with cysts, and the appearance of epilepsy during its development. The usual genetic studies (new generation sequencing and array) were negative, but as the diagnostic criteria were met, a complementary messenger RNA and DNA study was conducted, which confirmed the presence of two pathogenic variants in MLC1.

CONCLUSIONS: Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with cysts is a rare condition. Progressive macrocephaly in the first year of life, the absence of deterioration or slow deterioration, and the possibility of developing epilepsy, spasticity and ataxia are characteristic signs in its course. It is important for these patients to undergo an imaging test that shows findings that characterise this condition, which, together with the clinical features, makes it possible to differentiate it from other leukodystrophies and to establish a confirmatory diagnosis. Genetic studies can confirm the associated mutation that makes it possible to predict the clinicoradiological phenotype.

Translated title of the contributionMegalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with cysts -the clinical importance in the genetic era: the clinical importance in the genetic era
Original languageSpanish
JournalEuropean Neurology
Volume71
Issue number10
Pages (from-to)373-376
Number of pages4
ISSN0014-3022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Nov 2020

ID: 62388574