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Investigating the effect of sex and ketosis on weight-loss-induced changes in appetite

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Lyngstad, Anna ; Nymo, Siren ; Coutinho, Silvia R ; Rehfeld, Jens F ; Truby, Helen ; Kulseng, Bård ; Martins, Catia. / Investigating the effect of sex and ketosis on weight-loss-induced changes in appetite. In: The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2019 ; Vol. 109, No. 6. pp. 1511-1518.

Bibtex

@article{c7ccb99a4f2e4cb8bae117b8a5638515,
title = "Investigating the effect of sex and ketosis on weight-loss-induced changes in appetite",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) is usually accompanied by increased appetite, a response that seems to be absent when ketogenic diets are used. It remains unknown if sex modulates the appetite suppressant effect of ketosis.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine if sex modulates the impact of WL-induced changes in appetite and if ketosis alters these responses.METHODS: Ninety-five individuals (55 females) with obesity (BMI [kg/m 2]: 37 ± 4) underwent 8 wk of a very-low-energy diet, followed by 4 wk of refeeding and weight stabilization. Body composition, plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) and appetite-related hormones (active ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], total peptide YY [PYY], cholecystokinin and insulin), and subjective feelings of appetite were measured at baseline, week 9 in ketosis, and week 13 out of ketosis.RESULTS: The mean WL at week 9 was 17{\%} for males and 15{\%} for females, which was maintained at week 13. Weight, fat, and fat-free mass loss were greater in males (P < 0.001 for all) and the increase in β-HB at week 9 higher in females (1.174 ± 0.096 compared with 0.783 ± 0.112 mmol/L, P = 0.029). Basal and postprandial GLP-1 and postprandial PYY (all P < 0.05) were significantly different for males and females. There were no significant sex × time interactions for any other appetite-related hormones or subjective feelings of appetite. At week 9, basal GLP-1 was decreased only in males (P < 0.001), whereas postprandial GLP-1 was increased only in females (P < 0.001). No significant changes in postprandial PYY were observed over time for either sex.CONCLUSIONS: Ketosis appears to have a greater beneficial impact on GLP-1 in females. However, sex does not seem to modulate the changes in the secretion of other appetite-related hormones, or subjective feelings of appetite, seen with WL, regardless of the ketotic state. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01834859.",
author = "Anna Lyngstad and Siren Nymo and Coutinho, {Silvia R} and Rehfeld, {Jens F} and Helen Truby and B{\aa}rd Kulseng and Catia Martins",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} American Society for Nutrition 2019.",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1093/ajcn/nqz002",
language = "English",
volume = "109",
pages = "1511--1518",
journal = "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition",
issn = "0002-9165",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
number = "6",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Investigating the effect of sex and ketosis on weight-loss-induced changes in appetite

AU - Lyngstad, Anna

AU - Nymo, Siren

AU - Coutinho, Silvia R

AU - Rehfeld, Jens F

AU - Truby, Helen

AU - Kulseng, Bård

AU - Martins, Catia

N1 - Copyright © American Society for Nutrition 2019.

PY - 2019/6/1

Y1 - 2019/6/1

N2 - BACKGROUND: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) is usually accompanied by increased appetite, a response that seems to be absent when ketogenic diets are used. It remains unknown if sex modulates the appetite suppressant effect of ketosis.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine if sex modulates the impact of WL-induced changes in appetite and if ketosis alters these responses.METHODS: Ninety-five individuals (55 females) with obesity (BMI [kg/m 2]: 37 ± 4) underwent 8 wk of a very-low-energy diet, followed by 4 wk of refeeding and weight stabilization. Body composition, plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) and appetite-related hormones (active ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], total peptide YY [PYY], cholecystokinin and insulin), and subjective feelings of appetite were measured at baseline, week 9 in ketosis, and week 13 out of ketosis.RESULTS: The mean WL at week 9 was 17% for males and 15% for females, which was maintained at week 13. Weight, fat, and fat-free mass loss were greater in males (P < 0.001 for all) and the increase in β-HB at week 9 higher in females (1.174 ± 0.096 compared with 0.783 ± 0.112 mmol/L, P = 0.029). Basal and postprandial GLP-1 and postprandial PYY (all P < 0.05) were significantly different for males and females. There were no significant sex × time interactions for any other appetite-related hormones or subjective feelings of appetite. At week 9, basal GLP-1 was decreased only in males (P < 0.001), whereas postprandial GLP-1 was increased only in females (P < 0.001). No significant changes in postprandial PYY were observed over time for either sex.CONCLUSIONS: Ketosis appears to have a greater beneficial impact on GLP-1 in females. However, sex does not seem to modulate the changes in the secretion of other appetite-related hormones, or subjective feelings of appetite, seen with WL, regardless of the ketotic state. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01834859.

AB - BACKGROUND: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) is usually accompanied by increased appetite, a response that seems to be absent when ketogenic diets are used. It remains unknown if sex modulates the appetite suppressant effect of ketosis.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine if sex modulates the impact of WL-induced changes in appetite and if ketosis alters these responses.METHODS: Ninety-five individuals (55 females) with obesity (BMI [kg/m 2]: 37 ± 4) underwent 8 wk of a very-low-energy diet, followed by 4 wk of refeeding and weight stabilization. Body composition, plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) and appetite-related hormones (active ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], total peptide YY [PYY], cholecystokinin and insulin), and subjective feelings of appetite were measured at baseline, week 9 in ketosis, and week 13 out of ketosis.RESULTS: The mean WL at week 9 was 17% for males and 15% for females, which was maintained at week 13. Weight, fat, and fat-free mass loss were greater in males (P < 0.001 for all) and the increase in β-HB at week 9 higher in females (1.174 ± 0.096 compared with 0.783 ± 0.112 mmol/L, P = 0.029). Basal and postprandial GLP-1 and postprandial PYY (all P < 0.05) were significantly different for males and females. There were no significant sex × time interactions for any other appetite-related hormones or subjective feelings of appetite. At week 9, basal GLP-1 was decreased only in males (P < 0.001), whereas postprandial GLP-1 was increased only in females (P < 0.001). No significant changes in postprandial PYY were observed over time for either sex.CONCLUSIONS: Ketosis appears to have a greater beneficial impact on GLP-1 in females. However, sex does not seem to modulate the changes in the secretion of other appetite-related hormones, or subjective feelings of appetite, seen with WL, regardless of the ketotic state. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01834859.

U2 - 10.1093/ajcn/nqz002

DO - 10.1093/ajcn/nqz002

M3 - Journal article

VL - 109

SP - 1511

EP - 1518

JO - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 6

ER -

ID: 58076955