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Interactions between hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis and other pituitary dysfunctions

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@article{c9719e3101fe4b6c899a4049242c47ef,
title = "Interactions between hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis and other pituitary dysfunctions",
abstract = "Central hypothyroidism is defined as low circulating free thyroxine (free T4) with inappropriately low circulating thyrotropin (TSH), in context of a hypothalamic pituitary pathology. Rare cases of idiopathic central hypothyroidism caused by a functional defect may occur, and the condition is often overlooked due to difficulty in achieving the correct diagnosis, sparse symptomatology of the condition and a high risk of misinterpretion of the biochemical changes in central hypothyroidism. Central hypothyroidism is mainly seen in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary pathology due to one of many possible aetiologies, where other hormone deficiencies often co-exist, and both the presence of other deficiencies and their replacement have a strong influence on the measurement of the thyroid-related hormones and thereby interpretation of the thyroid function variables in relation to the clinical impact of thyroid hormone substitution therapy. Conversely, lack of thyroid hormone has a similar strong influence on the interpretation of other pituitary hormone axes, as well as their replacement. Undertreating patients with central hypothyroidism may have serious metabolic consequences with a potentially increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity. The present review thus aims at describing central hypothyroidism, by an overview of interactions of hypothyroidism with other pituitary hormones, diagnosing/testing for central hypothyroidism, and focusing on consequences of undertreatment. Finally, it is mentioned how to deal with new diagnostic settings with lower a priori likelihood of hypopituitarism, particularly in view of the importance of stringent diagnostic testing in order to avoid overdiagnosing central hypothyroidism.",
author = "Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen and Marianne Klose and Salvatore Benvenga",
year = "2018",
month = "9",
day = "6",
doi = "10.1007/s12020-018-1738-6",
language = "English",
volume = "62",
pages = "519--27",
journal = "Endocrine",
issn = "1355-008X",
publisher = "Humana Press, Inc",
number = "3",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Interactions between hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis and other pituitary dysfunctions

AU - Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

AU - Klose, Marianne

AU - Benvenga, Salvatore

PY - 2018/9/6

Y1 - 2018/9/6

N2 - Central hypothyroidism is defined as low circulating free thyroxine (free T4) with inappropriately low circulating thyrotropin (TSH), in context of a hypothalamic pituitary pathology. Rare cases of idiopathic central hypothyroidism caused by a functional defect may occur, and the condition is often overlooked due to difficulty in achieving the correct diagnosis, sparse symptomatology of the condition and a high risk of misinterpretion of the biochemical changes in central hypothyroidism. Central hypothyroidism is mainly seen in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary pathology due to one of many possible aetiologies, where other hormone deficiencies often co-exist, and both the presence of other deficiencies and their replacement have a strong influence on the measurement of the thyroid-related hormones and thereby interpretation of the thyroid function variables in relation to the clinical impact of thyroid hormone substitution therapy. Conversely, lack of thyroid hormone has a similar strong influence on the interpretation of other pituitary hormone axes, as well as their replacement. Undertreating patients with central hypothyroidism may have serious metabolic consequences with a potentially increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity. The present review thus aims at describing central hypothyroidism, by an overview of interactions of hypothyroidism with other pituitary hormones, diagnosing/testing for central hypothyroidism, and focusing on consequences of undertreatment. Finally, it is mentioned how to deal with new diagnostic settings with lower a priori likelihood of hypopituitarism, particularly in view of the importance of stringent diagnostic testing in order to avoid overdiagnosing central hypothyroidism.

AB - Central hypothyroidism is defined as low circulating free thyroxine (free T4) with inappropriately low circulating thyrotropin (TSH), in context of a hypothalamic pituitary pathology. Rare cases of idiopathic central hypothyroidism caused by a functional defect may occur, and the condition is often overlooked due to difficulty in achieving the correct diagnosis, sparse symptomatology of the condition and a high risk of misinterpretion of the biochemical changes in central hypothyroidism. Central hypothyroidism is mainly seen in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary pathology due to one of many possible aetiologies, where other hormone deficiencies often co-exist, and both the presence of other deficiencies and their replacement have a strong influence on the measurement of the thyroid-related hormones and thereby interpretation of the thyroid function variables in relation to the clinical impact of thyroid hormone substitution therapy. Conversely, lack of thyroid hormone has a similar strong influence on the interpretation of other pituitary hormone axes, as well as their replacement. Undertreating patients with central hypothyroidism may have serious metabolic consequences with a potentially increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity. The present review thus aims at describing central hypothyroidism, by an overview of interactions of hypothyroidism with other pituitary hormones, diagnosing/testing for central hypothyroidism, and focusing on consequences of undertreatment. Finally, it is mentioned how to deal with new diagnostic settings with lower a priori likelihood of hypopituitarism, particularly in view of the importance of stringent diagnostic testing in order to avoid overdiagnosing central hypothyroidism.

U2 - 10.1007/s12020-018-1738-6

DO - 10.1007/s12020-018-1738-6

M3 - Review

VL - 62

SP - 519

EP - 527

JO - Endocrine

JF - Endocrine

SN - 1355-008X

IS - 3

ER -

ID: 55349682