Infusion Therapies in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

Teus van Laar, K Ray Chaudhuri, Angelo Antonini, Tove Henriksen, Maja Trošt


Oral levodopa is the gold-standard therapy for treating Parkinson's disease (PD) but after a few years of treatment the therapeutic window narrows, and patients often experience various treatment-related complications. Patients in this advanced PD stage may benefit from alternative therapy, such as continuous intrajejunal delivery of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG; or carbidopa-levodopa enteral suspension), continuous intrajejunal delivery of levodopa-carbidopa-entacapone intestinal gel, or continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion. Consideration and initiation of infusion therapies in advanced PD are suggested before the onset of major disability. The present review summarizes clinical evidence for infusion therapy in advanced PD management, discusses available screening tools for advanced PD, and provides considerations around optimal use of infusion therapy.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Parkinson's Disease
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)641-657
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Humans
  • Parkinson Disease/drug therapy
  • Levodopa/therapeutic use
  • Carbidopa
  • Antiparkinson Agents/therapeutic use
  • Gels/therapeutic use
  • Drug Combinations


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