Increased Morbidity in Males Diagnosed with Gynecomastia: A nationwide register-based cohort study

Cecilie S Uldbjerg, Youn-Hee Lim, Elvira V Bräuner, Anders Juul*

*Corresponding author for this work
3 Citations (Scopus)


CONTEXT: Evidence on the long-term and general health of males with gynecomastia is lacking.

OBJECTIVES: To assess health before and following a diagnosis of gynecomastia.

METHODS: A register-based cohort study of 140 574 males, of which 23 429 were diagnosed with incident gynecomastia and age- and calendar-matched (1:5) to 117 145 males without gynecomastia from the background population. Males with gynecomastia were stratified into males without (idiopathic) or with a known preexisting risk factor (disease/medication). Cox and logistic regression models investigated associations of disease risk according to International Classification of Diseases 10th revision sections following and before gynecomastia diagnosis.

RESULTS: A total of 16 253 (69.4%) males in the cohort were identified with idiopathic gynecomastia. These males had a statistically significant higher risk of future disease across all included disease chapters (hazard ratio [HR], 1.19-1.89), with endocrine diseases representing the greatest disease risk (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.76-2.03). The highest subchapter disease risk was observed for disorders of the endocrine glands (odds ratio [OR], 7.27; 95% CI, 6.19-8.54). Similarly, the ORs of comorbidities were higher across all included disease sections (OR, 1.05-1.51), except for psychiatric disease (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.68-0.78), with the highest association with musculoskeletal/connective tissue (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.46-1.57) and circulatory (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.29-1.43) diseases.

CONCLUSIONS: The presence of idiopathic gynecomastia is an important first clinical symptom of an underlying disease and a significant predictor of future disease risk. These findings should stimulate more awareness among health care providers to increase identification of gynecomastia and its causes in males.

Original languageEnglish
JournalThe Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)e380-e387
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2023


  • Cohort Studies
  • Comorbidity
  • Female
  • Gynecomastia/epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Morbidity
  • Risk Factors
  • epidemiology
  • gynecomastia
  • endocrinology


Dive into the research topics of 'Increased Morbidity in Males Diagnosed with Gynecomastia: A nationwide register-based cohort study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this