Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been associated with a high risk of adverse outcomes in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients in the pre-vaccination era. In this retrospective cohort study, we examined the incidence and severity of COVID-19 in kidney and liver transplant recipients in Denmark in the post-vaccination era, from December 27, 2020, to December 27, 2021. We included 1428 SOT recipients with 143 cases of first-positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. The cumulative incidence of first-positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test 1 year after initiation of vaccination was 10.4% (95% CI: 8.8-12.0), and the incidence was higher in kidney than in liver transplant recipients (11.6% [95% CI: 9.4-13.8] vs. 7.4% [95% CI: 5.1-9.8], p = .009). After the first-positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test, the hospitalization rate was 31.5% (95% CI: 23.9-39.1), and 30-day all-cause mortality was 3.7% (95% CI: 0.5-6.8). Hospitalization was lower in vaccinated than in unvaccinated SOT recipients (26.4% [95% CI: 18.1-34.6] vs. 48.5% [95% CI: 31.4-65.5], p = .011), as was mortality (1.8% [95% CI: 0.0-4.3] vs. 9.1% [95% CI: 0.0-18.9], p = .047). In conclusion, SOT recipients remain at high risk of adverse outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infections, with a lower risk observed in vaccinated than in unvaccinated SOT recipients.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Transplantation
Issue number11
Pages (from-to)2637-2650
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • COVID-19/epidemiology
  • Denmark/epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects
  • Liver
  • Organ Transplantation/adverse effects
  • Retrospective Studies
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Transplant Recipients
  • Vaccination
  • patient survival
  • clinical research/practice
  • vaccine
  • infectious disease
  • solid organ transplantation
  • infection and infectious agents – viral: SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19


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