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The Capital Region of Denmark - a part of Copenhagen University Hospital
E-pub ahead of print

Improving pregnancy outcomes in women with diabetes mellitus: modern management

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Women with pre-existing (type 1 or type 2) diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of pregnancy complications, such as congenital malformations, preeclampsia and preterm delivery, compared with women who do not have diabetes mellitus. Approximately half of pregnancies in women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus are complicated by fetal overgrowth, which results in infants who are overweight at birth and at risk of birth trauma and, later in life, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Strict glycaemic control with appropriate diet, use of insulin and, if necessary, antihypertensive treatment is the cornerstone of diabetes mellitus management to prevent pregnancy complications. New technology for managing diabetes mellitus is evolving and is changing the management of these conditions in pregnancy. For instance, in Europe, most women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus are treated with insulin analogues before and during pregnancy. Furthermore, many women are on insulin pumps during pregnancy, and the use of continuous glucose monitoring is becoming more frequent. In addition, smartphone application technology is a promising educational tool for pregnant women with diabetes mellitus and their caregivers. This Review covers how modern diabetes mellitus management with appropriate diet, insulin and antihypertensive treatment in patients with pre-existing diabetes mellitus can contribute to reducing the risk of pregnancy complications such as congenital malformations, fetal overgrowth, preeclampsia and preterm delivery.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNature reviews. Endocrinology
Volume15
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)406-416
Number of pages11
ISSN1759-5029
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 4 Apr 2019

ID: 57063610