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Impact of modification to DSM-5 criterion A for hypomania/mania in newly diagnosed bipolar patients: findings from the prospective BIO study

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BACKGROUND: DSM-IV states that criterion A for diagnosing hypomania/mania is mood change. The revised DSM-5 now states that increased energy or activity must be present alongside mood changes to diagnose hypomania/mania, thus raising energy/activity to criterion A. We set out to investigate how the change in criterion A affects the diagnosis of hypomanic/manic visits in patients with a newly diagnosed bipolar disorder.

RESULTS: In this prospective cohort study, 373 patients were included (median age = 32; IQR, 27-40). Women constituted 66% (n = 245) of the cohort and 68% of the cohort (n = 253) met criteria for bipolar type II, the remaining patients were diagnosed bipolar type I. Median number of contributed visits was 2 per subject (IQR, 1-3) and median follow-up time was 3 years (IQR, 2-4). During follow-up, 127 patients had at least one visit with fulfilled DSM-IV criterion A. Applying DSM-5 criterion A reduced the number of patients experiencing a hypomanic/manic visit by 62% at baseline and by 50% during longitudinal follow-up, compared with DSM-IV criterion A. Fulfilling DSM-5 criterion A during follow-up was associated with higher modified young mania rating scale score (OR = 1.51, CL [1.34, 1.71], p < 0.0001) and increased number of visits contributed (OR = 1.86, CL [1.52, 2.29], p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSION: Applying the stricter DSM-5 criterion A in a cohort of newly diagnosed bipolar patients reduced the number of patients experiencing a hypomanic/manic visit substantially, and was associated with higher overall young mania rating scale scores, compared with DSM-IV criterion A. Consequently, fewer hypomanic/manic visits may be detected in newly diagnosed bipolar patients with applied DSM-5 criterion A, and the upcoming ICD-11, which may possibly result in longer diagnostic delay of BD as compared with the DSM-IV.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14
JournalInternational Journal of Bipolar Disorders
Volume9
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)14
ISSN2194-7511
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 May 2021

    Research areas

  • Activity, Bipolar disorder, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Version IV (DSM-IV), Energy, Irritability, Mood, The International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10), The International Classification of Diseases 11 (ICD-11)

ID: 65849374