Biofilm infections are tolerant to the host responses and recalcitrance to antibiotic drugs and disinfectants. The induced host-specific innate and adaptive immune responses by established biofilms are significantly implicated and contributes to the course of the infections. Essentially, the host response may be the single one factor impacting the outcome most, especially in cases where the biofilm is caused by low virulent opportunistic bacterial species. Due to the chronicity of biofilm infections, activation of the adaptive immune response mechanisms is frequently experienced, and instead of clearing the infection, the adaptive response adds to the pathogenesis. To a high degree, this has been reported for chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections, where both a pronounced antibody response and a skewed Th1/Th2 balance has been related to a poorer outcome. In addition, detection of an adaptive immune response can be used as a significant indicator of a chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection and is included in the clinical definitions as such. Those issues are presented in the present review, along with a characterization of the airway structure in relation to immune responses towards P. aeruginosa pulmonary infections.