Adult neurogenesis (AN) can be defined as the birth and development of new neurons in adulthood. Until the 1990s, AN was deemed not to happen after birth. Gradually, several groups demonstrated that specific zones of the brain of various species had a neurogenic potential. AN could be the key to treating a large range of neurodegenerative, neuropsychiatric, and metabolic diseases, with a better understanding of the mechanisms allowing for regeneration of new neurons. Despite this promising prospect, the existence of AN has not been validated in vivo in humans and therefore remains controversial. Moreover, the weight of AN-induced plasticity against other mechanisms of brain plasticity is not known, adding to the controversy. In this review, we would like to show that recent technical advances in brain MR imaging methods combined with improved models can resolve the debate.