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IL-10 to TNFα ratios throughout early first trimester can discriminate healthy pregnancies from pregnancy losses

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PROBLEM: Embryo implantation and placentation require a careful immunological balance. Cytokines such as IL-10 and TNFα have been implicated as markers of dysregulation, but have only been studied at a single time point or after a pregnancy loss. Our objective was to determine normative patterns of serum levels of IL-10 and TNFα and their ratio throughout the first trimester in healthy pregnancies and to determine if this pattern differs from pregnancy loss.

METHOD OF STUDY: Two prospective longitudinal cohorts of gravidae including in vitro fertilization (IVF) and naturally conceived pregnancies with serial blood draws. Cytokines were assayed using Simple Plex. In the IVF cohort, we monitored from the implantation day up to 6 weeks of gestation; whereas in the naturally conceived cohort, sample collection began at 4 weeks and throughout the whole first trimester.

RESULTS: IL-10 concentrations in normal pregnancies were significantly higher than in pregnancies ending in a loss starting at 6-8 weeks of gestation, while TNFα concentrations were significantly lower in normal than in pregnancies ending in a loss starting at 3-5 of gestation weeks. The IL-10 to TNFα ratio in normal pregnancies was significantly higher from 4 to 9 weeks compared to pregnancies that were lost (t test, P < .05). Changes were observed before any symptoms of miscarriage were present.

CONCLUSION: We provide evidences of differences in early immunomodulation in healthy pregnancies vs those destined to end in first-trimester loss. The ratio of IL-10 to TNFα rises significantly higher in viable pregnancies as early as 4.5 weeks compared to pregnancies loss.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Reproductive Immunology and Microbiology
Volume83
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)e13195
ISSN8755-8920
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020

ID: 59581279