Identifying patients with therapy-resistant depression by using factor analysis

K Andreasson, V Liest, M Lunde, Klaus Per Juul Martiny, M Unden, S Dissing, P Bech

7 Citations (Scopus)


INTRODUCTION: Attempts to identify the factor structure in patients with treatment-resistant depression have been very limited. METHODS: Principal component analysis was performed using the baseline datasets from 3 add-on studies [2 with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and one with transcranial pulsed electromagnetic fields (T-PEMF)], in which the relative effect as percentage of improvement during the treatment period was analysed. RESULTS: We identified 2 major factors, the first of which was a general factor. The second was a dual factor consisting of a depression subscale comprising the negatively loaded items (covering the pure depression items) and a treatment resistant subscale comprising the positively loaded items (covering lassitude, concentration difficulties and sleep problems). These 2 dual subscales were used as outcome measures. Improvement on the treatment resistant subscale was 40% in the active treatment group compared to 17-30% improvement in the sham treatments. DISCUSSION: It is possible to describe patients with therapy-resistant depression by a factor structure. Both rTMS and T-PEMF had a clinical effect on the factor-derived scales when compared to sham treatment.
Original languageEnglish
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)252-6
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2010


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