Hypospadias in a cohort of 1072 Danish newborn boys: prevalence and relationship to placental weight, anthropometrical measurements at birth, and reproductive hormone levels at three months of age

K A Boisen, M Chellakooty, I M Schmidt, C M Kai, I N Damgaard, Anne-Maarit Suomi, J Toppari, N E Skakkebaek, K M Main

172 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

CONTEXT: Hypospadias is one of the most frequent male congenital malformations and may be part of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of hypospadias in Denmark and evaluate the relationship to anthropometrical measurements at birth and reproductive hormone levels at 3 months of age.

DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted with 3-yr follow-up (1997-2004).

SETTING: The population-based study was conducted at the University Hospital of Copenhagen.

PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1072 Danish boys were consecutively recruited antenatally, with 74.4% completing the study.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The study examined the position of the urethral meatus, anthropometrical measurements, placental weight, and reproductive hormone levels.

RESULTS: The Danish birth prevalence of hypospadias was significantly higher than in a concomitant Finnish study (1.03 vs. 0.27%; P = 0.012). At 3 yr, the true prevalence was found to be 4.64% because additional mild cases were detected when physiological phimosis dissolved. Weight for gestational age (percentage deviation from expected mean) (-5.00 vs. -0.59%; P = 0.030) and placental weight (567 vs. 658 g; P = 0.023) were significantly lower, and FSH was significantly higher (1.48 vs. 1.15 IU/liter; P = 0.007) in boys with hypospadias, compared with healthy boys.

CONCLUSIONS: We found a surprisingly high total rate of hypospadias of 4.6% in this large prospective cohort study. Seventy-two percent of the cases were apparent only after the prepuce could be retracted. Hypospadias were associated with elevated serum FSH levels at 3 months. We also confirmed an association between fetal growth impairment and hypospadias; however, it is yet unknown whether this indicates a causal relationship or a shared pathogenic factor.

Original languageEnglish
JournalThe Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Volume90
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)4041-6
Number of pages6
ISSN0021-972X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2005

Keywords

  • Birth Weight
  • Cohort Studies
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone
  • Humans
  • Hypospadias
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Inhibins
  • Male
  • Organ Size
  • Placenta
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

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