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The Capital Region of Denmark - a part of Copenhagen University Hospital
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Hyponatremia and metabolic bone disease in patients with epilepsy: A cross-sectional study

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AIM: Patients with epilepsy frequently develop hyponatremia due to the treatment with antiepileptic drugs and have an increased risk of developing metabolic bone disease. Hyponatremia is known to be associated with osteoporosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between hyponatremia and osteoporosis in patients with epilepsy.

METHOD AND MATERIAL: This cross-sectional study included patients with epilepsy from a tertiary epilepsy out-patient clinic in Denmark, who had a Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry scan performed and an accompanying plasma sodium (p-Na) measured prior to or a maximum of 14 days after the scan. Information regarding the patients' health and medical conditions were obtained from their medical reports.

RESULTS: A total of 695 patients (females 53.8%, age 49 (34:63) years (median (quartiles)) were included. 10.4% had hyponatremia (p-Na ≤ 135 mmol/L). The hyponatremic patients had significantly lower T-scores in the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total femur (all p < 0.023) and the odds ratio of osteoporosis (T-score < -2.5) was significantly increased (2.91 (1.61-5.27) (95% confidence interval) (p = 0.001)). When adjusting for potential confounders the patients with moderate and severe hyponatremia (p-Na < 129 mmol/L) had a significantly lower mean T-score in the lumbar spine (p = 0.030).

CONCLUSION: We conclude that hyponatremia is common in patients with epilepsy and that moderate and severe hyponatremia is independently associated with decreased bone mineral density in the lumbar spine. Therefore, hyponatremia in a patient with epilepsy should warrant further examination of the patient for bone loss and osteoporosis.

Original languageEnglish
JournalThe Bone
Volume123
Pages (from-to)67-75
Number of pages9
ISSN0914-7047
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

ID: 57245954