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Hyperproinsulinaemia in normoglycaemic lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients

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BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate whether the insulin precursors, intact (IP) and 32-33 split proinsulin (SP), which are elevated in states of insulin resistance and predict type 2 diabetes, would be elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy (LIPO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three normoglycaemic HIV-infected patients [18 LIPO and 18 without lipodystrophy (NONLIPO) receiving antiretroviral drugs, and seven patients naïve to antiretroviral drugs (NAIVE)] were examined. Insulin precursors were measured during fasting, during an intravenous glucose tolerance test and during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, respectively. Insulin secretion rates (ISR) were determined by deconvolution of C-peptide concentrations. Disposition index (DI) was calculated as insulin sensitivity (Si(RD)) multiplied by the first-phase insulin response to intravenous glucose. RESULTS: LIPO exhibited increased fasting IP and SP (P < 0.05), a higher proportion of elevated fasting IP (3.1 pmol L(-1), 66% vs. 33% and 28%, P < 0.05) and SP (7.2 pmol L(-1), 50%, 11% and 0%, P < 0.01), reduced Si(RD) (> 50%, P < 0.001) and increased ISR (P < 0.001) compared with NONLIPO and NAIVE. Fasting SP and IP correlated positively with ISR (P < 0.001) and inversely and hyperbolically with Si(RD) (P < 0.001). Fasting SP/insulin ratio correlated inversely with Si(RD) (P < 0.05). Incremental IP + SP/insulin ratio after an intravenous glucose bolus correlated inversely with DI (P < 0.01), but did not differ between study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Proinsulin appeared to be increased in HIV-lipodystrophy, but no more than caused by the increased ISR. Nevertheless, the inverse correlations between SP/insulin ratio versus Si(RD) and incremental total proinsulin/insulin ratio versus DI may argue for a subtle beta-cell dysfunction in those patients with insulin resistance and low DI.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Investigation
Pages (from-to)436-445
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 2006

ID: 32578121