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Hyperosmolar Duodenal Saline Infusion Lowers Circulating Ghrelin and Stimulates Intestinal Hormone Release in Young Men

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  • Simon Veedfald
  • Tongzhi Wu
  • Michelle Bound
  • Jacqueline Grivell
  • Bolette Hartmann
  • Jens F Rehfeld
  • Carolyn F Deacon
  • Michael Horowitz
  • Jens J Holst
  • Christopher K Rayner
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Context: The mechanisms regulating the postprandial suppression of ghrelin secretion remain unclear, but recent observations in rats indicate that an increase in duodenal osmolarity is associated with a reduction in ghrelin levels. Several hormones have been implicated in the regulation of ghrelin.

Objective: We hypothesized that intraduodenal infusion of a hyperosmolar solution would lower plasma ghrelin concentrations.

Design, Setting, Participants, and Interventions: Eighteen healthy young men were studied after an overnight fast on two occasions in a randomized double-blinded fashion. A nasoduodenal catheter was positioned and isoosmolar (300 mOsm/L) or hyperosmolar (1500 mOsm/L) saline was infused intraduodenally (4 mL/min, t = 0 to 45 minutes). Venous blood was sampled at t = -45, -30, -15, 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, and 180 minutes.

Main Outcome Measures: Plasma concentrations of ghrelin, glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), neurotensin (NT), peptide YY (PYY), motilin, and glucose.

Results: Ghrelin concentrations were suppressed with hyperosmolar when compared with isoosmolar saline, and remained lower until t = 180 minutes. CCK, NT, GLP-1, PYY, and glucagon all increased during hyperosmolar, but not isoosmolar, saline infusion (P < 0.01 for all), whereas GIP, PP, and motilin levels were not affected by either infusion.

Conclusions: Plasma ghrelin concentrations are lowered, whereas CCK, GLP-1, PYY, NT, and glucagon concentrations are augmented, by hyperosmolar duodenal content in healthy individuals. These observations have implications for the evaluation of studies comparing the effects of different types and loads of nutrients and chemicals on gut hormone secretion.

Original languageEnglish
JournalThe Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Volume103
Issue number12
Pages (from-to)4409-4418
Number of pages10
ISSN0021-972X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018

ID: 55616736