Humoral and T-cell response 12 months after the first BNT162b2 vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients and controls: Kinetics, associated factors, and role of SARS-CoV-2 infection

Omid Rezahosseini, Sebastian Rask Hamm, Line Dam Heftdal, Laura Pérez-Alós, Dina Leth Møller, Michael Perch, Johannes Roth Madsen, Annemette Hald, Cecilie Bo Hansen, Jose Juan Almagro Armenteros, Mia Marie Pries-Heje, Rasmus Bo Hasselbalch, Kamille Fogh, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Linda Maria Hilsted, Erik Sørensen, Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Zitta Barrella Harboe, Kasper Iversen, Henning BundgaardSøren Schwartz Sørensen, Allan Rasmussen, Peter Garred, Susanne Dam Nielsen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: We investigated humoral and T-cell responses within 12 months after first BNT162b2 vaccine in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and controls who had received at least three vaccine doses. Furthermore, we compared the immune response in participants with and without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection.

METHODS: We included adult liver, lung, and kidney transplant recipients, and controls were selected from a parallel cohort of healthcare workers.

RESULTS: At 12th-month, the IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) (P<0.001), IgA GMCs (P=0.003), and median IFN-γ (P<0.001) were lower in SOT recipients than in controls. However, in SOT recipients and controls with previous infection, the neutralizing index was 99%, and the IgG, and IgA responses were comparable. After adjustment, female-sex (aOR: 3.6, P<0.009), kidney (aOR: 7.0, P= 0.008) or lung transplantation (aOR: 7.5, P= 0.014), and use of mycophenolate (aOR: 5.2, P=0.03) were associated with low IgG non response. Age (OR:1.4, P=0.038), time from transplantation to first vaccine (OR: 0.45, P<0.035), and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR: 0.14, P<0.001), were associated with low IgA non response. Diabetes (OR:2.4, P=0.044) was associated with T-cell non response.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, humoral and T-cell responses were inferior in SOT recipients without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection but comparable to controls in SOT recipients with previous infection.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1075423
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Volume13
ISSN1664-3224
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jan 2023

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • BNT162 Vaccine/immunology
  • COVID-19/prevention & control
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Lung Transplantation/adverse effects
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Vaccination
  • Immunity, Humoral
  • Immunity, Cellular
  • Kidney Transplantation

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