Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare hematopoietic neoplasm derived from non-Langerhans histiocytic cells of the monocyte/macrophage system. With an incidence of 0.17/million individuals and a slight male preference, HS presents with a wide age distribution. Most commonly, it occurs as a primary malignancy. In approximately 25% of the cases a presumed transdifferentiation of a preexisting hematolymphoid disorder can be demonstrated. The clinical presentation varies from a localized solitary mass to severe disseminated disease often with extranodal involvement including skin, soft tissue, the gastrointestinal tract and the hematopoietic system. Systemic symptoms in terms of weight loss, fever and night sweats often occur. The diagnostic work-up of HS is extremely challenging due to the rarity of the disease as well as a wide differential diagnosis in terms of a histologic overlap with diverse mimics. No standardized treatment for HS exists and especially in a disseminated disease the clinical course is overly aggressive with a dismal outcome. The median overall survival from the time of diagnosis is approximately six months. We report a 43-year-old previously healthy Caucasian male admitted to our hospitals with abdominal pain and a feeling of fatigue. We demonstrate both the challenges of a correct diagnosis and an effective treatment as well as the aggressive nature of histiocytic sarcoma.

Original languageEnglish
Article number310
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2021


  • 2-[ F]FDG PET/CT
  • Hematologic neoplasm
  • Histiocytic sarcoma
  • Hybrid imaging


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