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Graft Failure, Revision ACLR, and Reoperation Rates After ACLR With Quadriceps Tendon Versus Hamstring Tendon Autografts: A Registry Study With Review of 475 Patients

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BACKGROUND: It has been indicated that anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with a quadriceps tendon (QT) graft has a higher risk of revision compared with ACLR performed with a hamstring tendon (HT) graft.

PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate whether ACLR with QT graft had a higher risk of graft failure, revision ACLR, or reoperation compared with HT graft in a high-volume center. We hypothesized that there would be no between-group differences.

STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

METHODS: This was a registry study with review of medical records. Our study cohort consisted of patients who underwent primary ACLR with either QT or HT graft performed at Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre between January 2015 and December 2018. The cohort was identified from the Danish Knee Ligament Reconstruction Registry and linked to the Danish National Patient Registry to identify all hospital contacts after ACLR. The outcome variables were graft failure (rerupture or >3-mm side-to-side difference in anteroposterior [AP] laxity), revision ACLR, reoperation due to cyclops lesion, reoperation due to meniscal injury, and reoperation due to any reason. AP laxity and pivot shift were assessed at 1 year. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to evaluate the rates of events at 2 years, and comparison was performed with Cox regression analysis.

RESULTS: A total of 475 patients (252 HT, 223 QT) were included. The rate of graft failure at 2 years was 9.4% for the QT group and 11.1% for the HT group (P = .46). For the QT and HT groups, respectively, the rate of revision ACLR was 2.3% and 1.6% (P = .60), the rate of reoperation due to cyclops lesion was 5.0% and 2.4% (P = .13), and the rate of reoperation due to meniscal injury was 4.3% and 7.1% (P = .16). The rate of reoperation due to any reason was 20.5% and 23.6% (P = .37). At 1-year follow-up, AP laxity was 1.4 mm for QT and 1.5 mm for HT (P = .51), and the proportion of patients with a positive pivot shift was 29-30% for both groups.

CONCLUSION: QT and HT grafts yielded similar rates of graft failure, revision ACLR, and reoperation at 2 years of follow-up after ACLR. Graft failure was found in 9% to 11% of patients. Patients with QT ACLR showed a non-statistically significant trend of higher risk for reoperation due to cyclops lesion, and those with HT showed a non-statistically significant trend of higher risk for reoperation due to meniscal injury.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3635465211015172
JournalThe American journal of sports medicine
Volume49
Issue number8
Pages (from-to)2136-2143
Number of pages8
ISSN0363-5465
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s).

Copyright:
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

    Research areas

  • ACL reconstruction, hamstring tendon, quadriceps tendon, revision

ID: 66134411