10 Citations (Scopus)


Context: In healthy individuals, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) enhances insulin secretion and reduces bone resorption by up to 25% estimated by absolute placebo-corrected changes in carboxy-terminal type 1 collagen crosslinks (CTX) during GIP and glucose administration. In patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), GIP's insulinotropic effect is impaired and effects on bone may be reduced. Objective: To investigate GIP's effect on bone biomarkers in patients with T2D. Design: Randomized, double-blinded, crossover study investigating 6 interventions. Patients: Twelve male patients with T2D. Interventions: A primed continuous 90-minute GIP infusion (2 pmol/kg/min) or matching placebo (saline) administered at 3 plasma glucose (PG) levels (i.e., paired days with “insulin-induced hypoglycemia” (PG lowered to 3 mmol/L), “fasting hyperglycemia” (mean PG ~8 mmol/L), or “aggravated hyperglycemia” (mean PG ~12 mmol/L). Main Outcome Measures: Bone biomarkers: CTX, procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and PTH. Results: On days with insulin-induced hypoglycemia, CTX was suppressed by up to 40 ± 15% during GIP administration compared with 12 ± 11% during placebo infusion (P < 0.0001). On days with fasting hyperglycemia, CTX was suppressed by up to 36 ± 15% during GIP administration, compared with 0 ± 9% during placebo infusion (P < 0.0001). On days with aggravated hyperglycemia, CTX was suppressed by up to 47 ± 23% during GIP administration compared with 10 ± 9% during placebo infusion (P = 0.0005). At all glycemic levels, P1NP and PTH concentrations were similar between paired days after 90 minutes. Conclusions: Short-term GIP infusions reduce bone resorption by more than one-third (estimated by absolute placebo-corrected CTX reductions) in patients with T2DM, suggesting preserved bone effects of GIP in these patients. Précis: Short-term GIP infusions reduce the bone resorption marker CTX by one-third in patients with type 2 diabetes independent of glycemic levels.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberbvaa097
JournalJournal of the Endocrine Society
Issue number9
Pages (from-to)bvaa097
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2020


  • Bone markers
  • Carboxy-terminal collagen type 1 crosslinks (CTX)
  • Gastric inhibitory polypeptide
  • Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)
  • Procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP)


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