Global Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Stroke Volumes and Cerebrovascular Events: A 1-Year Follow-up

Thanh N Nguyen, Muhammad M Qureshi, Piers Klein, Hiroshi Yamagami, Robert Mikulik, Anna Czlonkowska, Mohamad Abdalkader, Petra Sedova, Anvitha Sathya, Hannah C Lo, Ossama Yassin Mansour, Husitha Reddy Vanguru, Emilie Lesaine, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Aaron I Loochtan, Jelle Demeestere, Ken Uchino, Violiza Inoa, Nitin Goyal, Andreas CharidimouJames E Siegler, Shadi Yaghi, Diana Aguiar de Sousa, Mahmoud Mohammaden, Diogo C Haussen, Espen Saxhaug Kristoffersen, Virginia Pujol Lereis, Sergio Daniel Scollo, Bruce C V Campbell, Alice Ma, James Orton Thomas, Mark W Parsons, Shaloo Singhal, Lee-Anne Slater, Rodrigo Tomazini Martins, Chris Enzinger, Thomas Gattringer, Aminur Rahman, Thomas Bonnet, Noemie Ligot, Sylvie De Raedt, Robin Lemmens, Peter Vanacker, Fenne Vandervorst, Adriana Bastos Conforto, Raquel C T Hidalgo, Luciana de Oliveira Neves, Rodrigo Targa Martins, Daissy Liliana Mora Cuervo, Leticia C Rebello, Igor Bessa Santiago, Isabelle Lameirinhas da Silva, Teodora Sakelarova, Rosen Kalpachki, Filip Alexiev, Luciana Catanese, Elena Adela Cora, Mayank Goyal, Michael D Hill, Michael E Kelly, Houman Khosravani, Pascale Lavoie, Lissa Peeling, Aleksandra Pikula, Rodrigo Rivera, Hui-Sheng Chen, Yimin Chen, Xiaochuan Huo, Zhongrong Miao, Shuiquan Yang, Marina Roje Bedekovic, Marina Bralic, Hrvoje Budincevic, Angel Basilio Corredor-Quintero, Osvaldo E Lara-Sarabia, Martin Cabal, Dusan Tenora, Petr Fibrich, Roman Herzig, Helena Hlaváčová, Emanuela Hrabanovska, David Hlinovsky, Lubomir Jurak, Jana Kadlcikova, Igor Karpowicz, Lukas Klecka, Martin Kovar, David Lauer, Jiri Neumann, Hana Palouskova, Martin Reiser, Petra Rekova, Vladimir Rohan, Ondrej Skoda, Miroslav Škorňa, Lenka Sobotková, Martin Sramek, Lenka Zakova, Hanne Christensen, Nicolas Drenck, Helle Klingenberg Iversen, Thomas Clement Truelsen, Troels Wienecke, Khalid Sobh, Pauli Ylikotila, Kemal Alpay, Daniel Strbian, Patricia Bernady, Philippe Casenave, Maria Dan, Jean-Marc Faucheux, Jean-Christophe Gentric, Elsa Magro, Candice Sabben, Peggy Reiner, Francois Rouanet, Ferdinand O Bohmann, Stefan Boskamp, Joshua Mbroh, Simon Nagel, Christian Nolte, Peter A Ringleb, Michael Rosenkranz, Sven Poli, Götz Thomalla, Theodoros Karapanayiotides, Ioanna Koutroulou, Odysseas Kargiotis, Lina Palaiodimou, Jose Dominguo Barrientos Guerra, Vikram Huded, Bindu Menon, Shashank Nagendra, Chintan Prajapati, P N Sylaja, Nyoman Angga Krishna Pramana, Achmad Firdaus Sani, Abdoreza Ghoreishi, Mehdi Farhoudi, Elyar Sadeghi Hokmabadi, Tariq Abu Raya, Shani Avnery Kalmanovich, Levite Ronen, Sergiu Ionut Sabetay, Maurizio Acampa, Alessandro Adami, Lucio Castellan, Marco Longoni, Raffaele Ornello, Leonardo Renieri, Claudia Rolla Bigliani, Michele Romoli, Simona Sacco, Andrea Salmaggi, Davide Sangalli, Andrea Zini, Ryosuke Doijiri, Hiroki Fukuda, Toshiyuki Fujinaka, Kyohei Fujita, Hirotoshi Imamura, Nobuyuki Sakai, Takuya Kanamaru, Naoto Kimura, Ryuhei Kono, Kosuke Miyake, Manabu Sakaguchi, Kenichiro Sakai, Kazutaka Sonoda, Kenichi Todo, Fumio Miyashita, Naoki Tokuda, Yuji Matsumaru, Shoji Matsumoto, Nobuyuki Ohara, Seigo Shindo, Yohei Takenobu, Takeshi Yoshimoto, Kazunori Toyoda, Takeshi Uwatoko, Yoshiki Yagita, Takehiro Yamada, Nobuaki Yamamoto, Ryoo Yamamoto, Yukako Yazawa, Yuri Sugiura, Peter Kuria Waweru, Jang-Hyun Baek, Si Baek Lee, Kwon-Duk Seo, Sung-Il Sohn, Anita Ante Arsovska, Yong Chieh Chan, Wan Asyraf Wan Zaidi, Ainul Syahrilfazli Jaafar, Fernando Gongora-Rivera, Manuel Martinez-Marino, Adrian Infante-Valenzuela, Stanislav Groppa, Pavel Leahu, Jonathan M Coutinho, Leon A Rinkel, Diederik W J Dippel, Dianne H K van Dam-Nolen, Annemarei Ranta, Teddy Y Wu, Tajudeen Temitayo Adebayo, Abiodun H Bello, Ernest Okwundu Nwazor, Taofiki Ajao Sunmonu, Kolawole Wasiu Wahab, Ole Morten Ronning, Else Charlotte Sandset, Amal M Al Hashimi, Saima Ahmad, Umair Rashid, Liliana Rodriguez-Kadota, Miguel Ángel Vences, Patrick Matic Yalung, Jon Stewart Hao Dy, Maria Carissa Pineda-Franks, Christian Oliver Co, Waldemar Brola, Aleksander Debiec, Malgorzata Dorobek, Michal Adam Karlinski, Beata M Labuz-Roszak, Anetta Lasek-Bal, Halina Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Jacek Staszewski, Piotr Sobolewski, Marcin Wiacek, Justyna Zielinska-Turek, Andre Pinho Araujo, Mariana Rocha, Pedro Castro, Vitor Tedim Cruz, Paulo Venancio Ferreira, Patricia Ferreira, Ana Paiva Nunes, Luisa Fonseca, João Pedro Marto, Teresa Pinho E Melo, Miguel Rodrigues, M Luis Silva, Adela Dimitriade, Cristian Falup-Pecurariu, May Adel Hamid, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Georgi Krastev, Miroslav Mako, Oscar Ayo-Martin, Francisco Hernández-Fernández, Jordi Blasco, Alejandro Rodríguez-Vázquez, Antonio Cruz-Culebras, Francisco Moniche, Joan Montaner, Soledad Perez-Sanchez, María Jesús García Sánchez, Marta Guillán Rodríguez, Katarina Jood, Annika Nordanstig, Michael V Mazya, Tiago T P Moreira, Gianmarco Bernava, Morin Beyeler, Manuel Bolognese, Emmanuel Carrera, Tomas Dobrocky, Grzegorz Marek Karwacki, Emanuela Keller, Chang Yang Hsieh, Surawan Boonyakarnkul, Anchalee Churojana, Ozlem Aykac, Atilla Ozdemir, Arsida Bajrami, Songul Senadim, Syed Irteza Hussain, Seby John, Soma Banerjee, Joseph Kwan, Kailash Krishnan, Robert Lenthall, Ashok Matthews, Ken Wong, Liqun Zhang, Dorothea Altschul, Kaiz S Asif, Zeelalem Bahiru, Kristine Below, José Biller, Sean Ruland, Saqib A Chaudry, Michael Chen, Alex Chebl, Jackie Cibulka, Leon Cistrunk, Judith Clark, Marco Colasurdo, Alexandra Czap, Adam de Havenon, Salvatore D'Amato, Sushrut Dharmadhikari, Kasey B Grimmett, Adam A Dmytriw, Mark R Etherton, Chizoba Ezepue, Mudassir Farooqui, Steven K Feske, Lauren Fink, Ulviyya Gasimova, Amy K Guzik, Maryam Hakemi, Majesta Hovingh, Muhib Khan, Dinesh Jillela, Peter T Kan, Rakesh Khatri, Ayaz M Khawaja, Naim N Khoury, Nicole L Kiley, Benny S Kim, Murali K Kolikonda, Anna Luisa Kuhn, Stephanie Lara, Guillermo Linares, Italo Linfante, Timothy G Lukovits, Sarah Lycan, Shailesh S Male, Laith Maali, John Mancin, Hesham Masoud, Ghada A Mohamed, Andre Monteiro, Fadi Nahab, Krishna Nalleballe, Santiago Ortega Gutierrez, Ajit S Puri, Yazan Radaideh, Rahul H Rahangdale, Ansaar Rai, Pankajavalli Ramakrishnan, Aravind B Reddy, Diana M Rojas-Soto, Jose Rafael Romero, Natalia S Rost, Aaron Rothstein, Setareh Salehi Omran, Sunil A Sheth, Adnan H Siddiqui, Amy K Starosciak, Nicholas E Tarlov, Robert A Taylor, Michael J Wang, Jared Wolfe, Ka-Ho Wong, Huynh Vu Le, Quy Viet Nguyen, Thong Nhu Pham, Trung Thanh Nguyen, Hoang Thi Phan, Mai Duy Ton, Urs Fischer, Patrik Michel, Davide Strambo, Sheila O Martins, Osama O Zaidat, Raul G Nogueira

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Declines in stroke admission, IV thrombolysis (IVT), and mechanical thrombectomy volumes were reported during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a paucity of data on the longer-term effect of the pandemic on stroke volumes over the course of a year and through the second wave of the pandemic. We sought to measure the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the volumes of stroke admissions, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), IVT, and mechanical thrombectomy over a 1-year period at the onset of the pandemic (March 1, 2020, to February 28, 2021) compared with the immediately preceding year (March 1, 2019, to February 29, 2020).

METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal retrospective study across 6 continents, 56 countries, and 275 stroke centers. We collected volume data for COVID-19 admissions and 4 stroke metrics: ischemic stroke admissions, ICH admissions, IVT treatments, and mechanical thrombectomy procedures. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases.

RESULTS: There were 148,895 stroke admissions in the 1 year immediately before compared with 138,453 admissions during the 1-year pandemic, representing a 7% decline (95% CI [95% CI 7.1-6.9]; p < 0.0001). ICH volumes declined from 29,585 to 28,156 (4.8% [5.1-4.6]; p < 0.0001) and IVT volume from 24,584 to 23,077 (6.1% [6.4-5.8]; p < 0.0001). Larger declines were observed at high-volume compared with low-volume centers (all p < 0.0001). There was no significant change in mechanical thrombectomy volumes (0.7% [0.6-0.9]; p = 0.49). Stroke was diagnosed in 1.3% [1.31-1.38] of 406,792 COVID-19 hospitalizations. SARS-CoV-2 infection was present in 2.9% ([2.82-2.97], 5,656/195,539) of all stroke hospitalizations.

DISCUSSION: There was a global decline and shift to lower-volume centers of stroke admission volumes, ICH volumes, and IVT volumes during the 1st year of the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the prior year. Mechanical thrombectomy volumes were preserved. These results suggest preservation in the stroke care of higher severity of disease through the first pandemic year.

TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: This study is registered under NCT04934020.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNeurology
Volume100
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)e408-e421
ISSN0028-3878
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Jan 2023

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