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Gastrointestinal osmoreceptors and renal sodium excretion in humans

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The hypothesis that natriuresis can be induced by stimulation of gastrointestinal osmoreceptors was tested in eight supine subjects on constant sodium intake (150 mmol NaCl/day). A sodium load equivalent to the amount contained in 10% of measured extracellular volume was administered by a nasogastric tube as isotonic or hypertonic saline (850 mM). In additional experiments, salt loading was replaced by oral water loading (3.5% of total body water). Plasma sodium concentration increased after hypertonic saline (+3.1 +/- 0.7 mM), decreased after water loading (-3.8 +/- 0.8 mM), and remained unchanged after isotonic saline. Oncotic pressure decreased by 9.4 +/- 1.2, 3.7 +/- 1.2, and 10.7 +/- 1.3%, respectively. Isotonic saline induced an increase in renal sodium excretion (104 +/- 15 to 406 +/- 39 micromol/min) that was larger than seen with hypertonic saline (85 +/- 15 to 325 +/- 39 micromol/min) and water loading (88 +/- 11 to 304 +/- 28 micromol/min). Plasma ANG II decreased to 22 +/- 6, 35 +/- 6, and 47 +/- 5% of baseline after isotonic saline, hypertonic saline, and water loading, respectively. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations and urinary excretion rates of endothelin-1 were unchanged. In conclusion, stimulation of osmoreceptors by intragastric infusion of hypertonic saline is not an important natriuretic stimulus in sodium-replete subjects. The natriuresis after intragastric salt loading was independent of ANP but can be explained by inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
Volume278
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)R287-94
ISSN0363-6119
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2000

    Research areas

  • Adult, Angiotensin II, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, Digestive System Physiological Phenomena, Drinking, Endothelin-1, Humans, Intubation, Gastrointestinal, Isotonic Solutions, Kidney, Male, Saline Solution, Hypertonic, Sodium, Sodium Chloride, Water-Electrolyte Balance

ID: 44512315