Gastrointestinal hormones and appetite ratings after weight loss induced by diet or bariatric surgery

Marthe Isaksen Aukan*, Silje Skårvold, Ingrid Øfsti Brandsaeter, Jens Frederik Rehfeld, Jens Juul Holst, Siren Nymo, Silvia Coutinho, Catia Martins

*Corresponding author for this work


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare changes in gastrointestinal hormones and appetite ratings after a similar weight loss induced by a very low-energy diet alone or in combination with sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB).

METHODS: Patients with severe obesity scheduled for SG (n = 15) and RYGB (n = 14) and 15 controls (very low-energy diet alone) were recruited. Body weight/composition, plasma concentrations of ß-hydroxybutyric acid, acylated ghrelin, total glucagon-like peptide-1, total peptide YY, cholecystokinin, and ratings of hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were measured pre- and postprandially, before and after 10 weeks of intervention.

RESULTS: Changes in body weight/composition and level of ketosis were similar across groups. In SG and RYGB, basal and postprandial acylated ghrelin declined, and postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 increased, both significantly more compared with controls. Postprandial peptide YY increased in all groups. Overall, postprandial hunger decreased, and postprandial fullness increased. But ratings of desire to eat and prospective food consumption were more favorable after both surgeries compared with controls.

CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss with SG and RYGB leads to more favorable changes in gastrointestinal hormones compared with diet alone, although ratings of appetite were reduced across all groups.

Original languageEnglish
JournalObesity (Silver Spring, Md.)
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)399-411
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Appetite
  • Diet
  • Gastrectomy
  • Gastric Bypass
  • Gastrointestinal Hormones
  • Ghrelin
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Humans
  • Obesity, Morbid/surgery
  • Peptide YY
  • Weight Loss


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