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Gastric peptides - gastrin and somatostatin

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Gastric acid secretion (i) facilitates digestion of protein as well as absorption of micronutrients and certain medications, (ii) kills ingested microorganisms, including Helicobacter pylori, and (iii) prevents bacterial overgrowth and enteric infection. The principal regulators of acid secretion are the gastric peptides gastrin and somatostatin. Gastrin, the major hormonal stimulant for acid secretion, is synthesized in pyloric mucosal G cells as a 101-amino acid precursor (preprogastrin) that is processed to yield biologically active amidated gastrin-17 and gastrin-34. The C-terminal active site of gastrin (Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2 ) binds to gastrin/CCK2 receptors on parietal and, more importantly, histamine-containing enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells, located in oxyntic mucosa, to induce acid secretion. Histamine diffuses to the neighboring parietal cells where it binds to histamine H2 -receptors coupled to hydrochloric acid secretion. Gastrin is also a trophic hormone that maintains the integrity of gastric mucosa, induces proliferation of parietal and ECL cells, and is thought to play a role in carcinogenesis. Somatostatin, present in D cells of the gastric pyloric and oxyntic mucosa, is the main inhibitor of acid secretion, particularly during the interdigestive period. Somatostatin exerts a tonic paracrine restraint on gastrin secretion from G cells, histamine secretion from ECL cells, and acid secretion from parietal cells. Removal of this restraint, for example by activation of cholinergic neurons during ingestion of food, initiates and maximizes acid secretion. Knowledge regarding the structure and function of gastrin, somatostatin, and their respective receptors is providing novel avenues to better diagnose and manage acid-peptic disorders and certain cancers. Published 2020. Compr Physiol 10:197-228, 2020.

Original languageEnglish
JournalComprehensive Physiology
Volume10
Issue number1
Pages (from-to)197-228
Number of pages32
ISSN2040-4603
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020

ID: 58869907