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Fibroblast growth factor 21 in patients with cardiac cachexia: a possible role of chronic inflammation

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AIMS: Cardiac cachexia is a wasting syndrome characterized by chronic inflammation and high mortality. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) are associated with cardiovascular disease and systemic inflammation. We investigated FGF-21 and MCP-1 in relations to cardiac function, inflammation, and wasting in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and cardiac cachexia.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma FGF-21 and MCP-1 were measured in a cross-sectional study among the three study groups: 19 patients with HFrEF with cardiac cachexia, 19 patients with HFrEF without cachexia, and 19 patients with ischaemic heart disease and preserved ejection fraction. Patients with HFrEF and cardiac cachexia displayed higher FGF-21 levels median (inter quantile range) 381 (232-577) pg/mL than patients with HFrEF without cachexia 224 (179-309) pg/mL and ischaemic heart disease patients 221 (156-308) pg/mL (P = 0.0496). No difference in MCP-1 levels were found among the groups (P = 0.345). In a multivariable regression analysis, FGF-21 (logarithm 2) was independently associated with interleukin 6 (logarithm 2) (P = 0.015) and lower muscle mass (P = 0.043), while no relation with N-terminal pro-hormone brain natriuretic peptide was observed.

CONCLUSIONS: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) levels were elevated in patients with HFrEF and cardiac cachexia, which could be mediated by increased inflammation and muscle wasting rather than impaired cardiac function.

Original languageEnglish
JournalESC Heart Failure
Volume6
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)983-991
Number of pages9
ISSN2055-5822
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019

ID: 59042118