Fetal Medicine Foundation charts for fetal growth in twins

A Wright, D Wright, P Chaveeva, F S Molina, R Akolekar, A Syngelaki, O B Petersen, S E Kristensen, K H Nicolaides*

*Corresponding author for this work

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To derive reference distributions of estimated fetal weight (EFW) in twins relative to singletons.

METHODS: Gestational-age- and chorionicity-specific reference distributions for singleton percentiles and EFW were fitted to data on 4391 twin pregnancies with two liveborn fetuses from four European centers, including 3323 dichorionic (DC) and 1068 monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies. Gestational age was derived using the larger of the two crown-rump length measurements obtained during the first trimester of pregnancy. EFW was obtained from ultrasound measurements of head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length using the Hadlock formula. Singleton percentiles were obtained using the Fetal Medicine Foundation population weight charts for singleton pregnancies. Hierarchical models were fitted to singleton Z-scores with autoregressive terms for serial correlations within the same fetus and between twins from the same pregnancy. Separate models were fitted for DC and MCDA twins.

RESULTS: Fetuses from twin pregnancies tended to be smaller than singletons at the earliest gestational ages (16 weeks for MCDA and 20 weeks for DC twins). This was followed by a period of catch-up growth until around 24 weeks. After that, both DC and MCDA twins showed reduced growth. In DC twins, the EFW corresponding to the 50th percentile was at the 50th percentile of singleton pregnancies at 23 weeks, the 43rd percentile at 28 weeks, the 32nd percentile at 32 weeks and the 22nd percentile at 36 weeks. In MCDA twins, the EFW corresponding to the 50th percentile was at the 36th percentile of singleton pregnancies at 24 weeks, the 29th percentile at 28 weeks, the 19th percentile at 32 weeks and the 12th percentile at 36 weeks.

CONCLUSIONS: In DC and, to a greater extent, MCDA twin pregnancies, fetal growth is reduced compared with that observed in singleton pregnancies. Furthermore, after 24 weeks, the divergence in growth trajectories between twin and singleton pregnancies becomes more pronounced as gestational age increases. © 2023 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Original languageEnglish
JournalUltrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume63
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)181-188
Number of pages8
ISSN0960-7692
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024

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