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Facial Asymmetry in Nonsyndromic and Muenke Syndrome-Associated Unicoronal Synostosis: A 3-Dimensional Study Based on Facial Surfaces Extracted From CT Scans

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OBJECTIVE: To quantify soft tissue facial asymmetry (FA) in children with nonsyndromic and Muenke syndrome-associated unicoronal synostosis (NS-UCS and MS-UCS), hypothesizing that MS-UCS presents with significantly larger FA than NS-UCS.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one children (mean age: 0.6 years; range: 0.1-1.4 years) were included in the study (NS-UCS = 14; MS-UCS = 7). From presurgical computed tomography scans, facial surfaces were constructed for analysis. A landmark guided atlas was deformed to match each patient's surface, obtaining spatially detailed left-right point correspondence. Facial asymmetry was calculated in each surface point across the face, as the length (mm) of an asymmetry vector, with its Cartesian components providing 3 directions. Mean FA was calculated for the full face, and the forehead, eye, nose, cheek, mouth, and chin regions.

RESULTS: For the full face, a significant difference of 2.4 mm (P = .001) was calculated between the 2 groups, predominately in the transverse direction (1.5 mm; P < .001). The forehead and chin regions presented with the largest significant difference, 3.5 mm (P = .002) and 3.2 mm (P < .001), respectively; followed by the eye (2.4 mm; P = .004), cheek (2.2 mm; P = .004), nose (1.7 mm; P = .001), and mouth (1.4 mm; P = .009) regions. The transverse direction presented with the largest significant difference in the forehead, chin, mouth, and nose regions, the sagittal direction in the cheek region, and the vertical direction in the eye region.

CONCLUSIONS: Muenke syndrome-associated unicoronal synostosis presented with significantly larger FA in all regions compared to NS-UCS. The largest significant differences were found in the forehead and chin regions, predominantly in the transverse direction.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal
Volume58
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)687-696
Number of pages10
ISSN1055-6656
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021

    Research areas

  • facial morphology, pediatrics, synostosis

ID: 61710247