Experimental Hyperglycemia Alters Circulating Concentrations and Renal Clearance of Oxidative and Advanced Glycation End Products in Healthy Obese Humans

Ryan K Perkins, Edwin R Miranda, Kristian Karstoft, Paul J Beisswenger, Thomas P J Solomon, Jacob M Haus

23 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of experimental hyperglycemia on oxidative damage (OX), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) through an in vivo approach. Obese subjects (n = 10; 31.2 ± 1.2 kg·m-2; 56 ± 3 years) underwent 24 h of hyperglycemic clamp (+5.4 mM above basal), where plasma at basal and after 2 h and 24 h of hyperglycemic challenge were assayed for OX (methionine sulfoxide, MetSO, and aminoadipic acid, AAA) and AGE-free adducts (Ne-carboxymethyllysine, CML; Ne-carboxyethyllysine, CEL; glyoxal hydroimidazolone-1, GH-1; methylglyoxal hydroimidazolone-1, MG-H1; and 3-deoxyglucosone hydroimidazolone, 3DG-H) via liquid chromatography⁻tandem mass spectrometry (LC⁻MS/MS). Urine was also analyzed at basal and after 24 h for OX and AGE-free adducts and plasma soluble RAGE (sRAGE) isoforms (endogenous secretory RAGE, esRAGE, and cleaved RAGE, cRAGE), and inflammatory markers were determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Skeletal muscle tissue collected via biopsy was probed at basal, 2 h, and 24 h for RAGE and OST48 protein expression. Plasma MetSO, AAA, CEL, MG-H1, and G-H1 decreased (-18% to -47%; p < 0.05), while CML increased (72% at 24 h; p < 0.05) and 3DG-H remained unchanged (p > 0.05) with the hyperglycemic challenge. Renal clearance of MetSO, AAA, and G-H1 increased (599% to 1077%; p < 0.05), CML decreased (-30%; p < 0.05), and 3DG-H, CEL, and MG-H1 remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Fractional excretion of MetSO, AAA, CEL, G-H1, and MG-H1 increased (5.8% to 532%; p < 0.05) and CML and 3DG-H remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Muscle RAGE and OST48 expression, plasma sRAGE, IL-1β, IL-1Ra, and TNFα remained unchanged (p > 0.05), while IL-6 increased (159% vs. basal; p > 0.05). These findings suggest that individuals who are obese but otherwise healthy have the capacity to prevent accumulation of OX and AGEs during metabolic stress by increasing fractional excretion and renal clearance.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2019


  • Biomarkers/metabolism
  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Glucose Clamp Technique
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced/metabolism
  • Healthy Volunteers
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia/etiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity/complications
  • Oxidative Stress/physiology
  • Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/analysis
  • Renal Elimination/physiology
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Inflammation
  • RAGE
  • Soluble RAGE
  • Hyperglycemia


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