Background: Endotheliopathy is suggested as pivotal pathophysiology of sepsis and trauma-associated organ failure, but its role in acute respiratory failure is not yet determined. We investigated if endotheliopathy biomarkers at ICU admission are associated with illness severity and clinical outcomes in patients with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Methods: We conducted a prospective single-center cohort study including 459 mechanically ventilated adults at ICU admission. Plasma levels of three endotheliopathy biomarkers were measured at ICU admission: Syndecan-1, soluble Thrombomodulin (sTM), and Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (PECAM-1). The primary outcome was the rate of liberation from mechanical ventilation, which is presented together with the rate of the competing risk of death while still on mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes were PaO 2/FiO 2-ratios on admission and on last measurement in patients dying within five days, and 30-day all-cause mortality. The primary outcome and 30-day all-cause mortality were analyzed using Cox regression, controlled for gender, age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, septic shock, heart failure, PaO 2/FiO 2-ratio at admission, respiratory infection, acute kidney injury, and bilirubin. PaO 2/FiO 2-ratios were analyzed using linear regression, controlled for age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory infection, and shock. Results: Patients with high sTM were liberated from mechanical ventilation at a lower rate (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.71, for an increase from the 25th to the 75th percentile, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54–0.93, p = 0.01). Patients with high PECAM-1 were liberated from mechanical ventilation at a lower rate, but only during the first 5 days (adjusted HR 0.72, for an increase from the 25th to the 75th percentile, 95% CI 0.58–0.9, p < 0.01). High levels of Syndecan-1 and PECAM-1 were associated with a higher rate of death while still on mechanical ventilation. sTM and PECAM-1 were negatively associated with PaO 2/FiO 2-ratio at ICU admission and no biomarker was associated with last measured PaO 2/FiO 2-ratio. High levels of all biomarkers were associated with higher 30-day all-cause mortality. Conclusion: In acute respiratory failure, endotheliopathy biomarkers are associated with lower rates of liberation from mechanical ventilation, hypoxemia at ICU admission, and 30-day all-cause mortality. Graphic Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
- Observational study
- Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
- Respiratory insufficiency/physiopathology