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Embracing Multiple Stakeholder Perspectives in Defining Trainee Competence

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PURPOSE: To explore how multiple stakeholder groups contribute to the understanding of trainee competence.

METHOD: The authors conducted a constructivist qualitative study in 2015 using focus group discussions to explore the perceptions of different stakeholder groups (patients, nurses/nurse practitioners, supervisors/senior physicians, leaders/administrators, trainees) regarding trainee competence in the emergency department. The authors used a conventional content analysis, a comparative analysis of supervisors'/senior physicians' versus other stakeholders' perspectives, and a directed analysis informed by stakeholder theory to analyze the focus group transcripts.

RESULTS: Forty-six individuals participated in nine focus groups. Four categories of competence were identified: Core Clinical Activities, Patient Centeredness, Aligning Resources, and Code of Conduct. Stakeholders generally agreed in their overall expectations regarding trainee competence. Within individual categories, each stakeholder group identified new considerations, details, and conflicts, which were a replication, elaboration, or complication of a previously identified theme. All stakeholders stressed those aspects of trainee competence that were relevant to their work or values. Trainees were less aware of the patient perspective than that of the other stakeholder groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Considering multiple stakeholder perspectives enriched the description and conceptualization of trainee competence. It also can inform the development of curricula and assessment tools and guide learning about inter- and intradisciplinary conflicts. Further research should explore how trainees' perceptions of value are influenced by their organizational context and, in particular, how trainees adapt their learning goals in response to the divergent demands of key stakeholders.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAcademic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Volume94
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)838-846
Number of pages9
ISSN1040-2446
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019

ID: 58139966