Efficacy and safety of oral anticoagulants according to kidney function among patients with atrial fibrillation

Casper Binding*, Paul Blanche*, Gregory Y H Lip, Anne-Lise Kamper, Christina J Y Lee, Laila Staerk, Gunnar Gislason, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Jonas Bjerring Olesen, Anders Nissen Bonde

*Corresponding author for this work

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with severely reduced kidney function have been excluded from randomized controlled trials and data on safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) according to kidney function remain sparse. The aim was to evaluate safety and efficacy of the DOACs across subgroups of kidney function.

METHODS: Using multiple Danish nationwide registers and laboratory databases, we included patients initiated on oral anticoagulants (OACs) with atrial fibrillation and available creatinine level and followed patients for 2 years to evaluate occurrence of stroke/thromboembolism (TE) and major bleeding.

RESULTS: Among 26,686 included patients, 3667 (13.7%) had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-49 mL/min/1.73m2 and 596 (2.2%) had an eGFR below 30 mL/min/1.73m2. We found no evidence of differences regarding the risk of stroke/TE between the OACs (p-value interaction>0.05 for all). Apixaban was associated with a lower 2-year risk of major bleeding compared to VKA (risk ratio 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-0.93), and the risk difference was significantly larger among patients with reduced kidney function (p-value interaction 0.018). Rivaroxaban was associated with higher risk of bleeding compared to apixaban (risk ratio 1.78, 95%CI 1.32-2.39) among patients with eGFR 30-49 mL/min/1.73m2.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found no differences regarding the risk of stroke/TE, but apixaban was associated with a 21% lower relative risk of major bleeding compared to VKA. This risk reduction was even greater when comparing apixaban and rivaroxaban among patients with eGFR 15-30 mL/min/1.73m2, and when comparing apixaban to dabigatran and rivaroxaban among patients with eGFR 30-49 mL/min/1.73m2.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean heart journal. Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy
ISSN2055-6837
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 24 Feb 2024

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