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Effect of Routine Cytochrome P450 2D6 and 2C19 Genotyping on Antipsychotic Drug Persistence in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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Importance: Genetic polymorphism of genes encoding the drug metabolizing enzymes, cytochrome P450 2D6 and 2C19 (CYP2D6 and CYP2C19), is associated with treatment failure of and adverse reactions to psychotropic drugs. The clinical utility of routine CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotyping (CYP testing) is unclear.

Objective: To estimate whether routine CYP testing effects the persistence of antipsychotic drug treatment.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-masked, 3-group randomized clinical trial included patients aged 18 years or older who had been diagnosed within the schizophrenic spectrum (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision codes, F20-F29) and not previously genotyped. A total of 669 of 1406 potentially eligible patients from 12 psychiatric outpatient clinics in Denmark were approached between July 2008 and December 2009. Overall, 528 patients were genotyped and randomly allocated to 1 of 3 study groups or exclusion in a sequence of 1:1:1:3 using a predictive enrichment design, aiming to double the proportion of poor or ultrarapid metabolizers for CYP2D6 or CYP2C19. Outcome measurements were recorded at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Data analysis was performed in December 2012 and updated March 2019.

Interventions: The trial included 2 intervention groups, where antipsychotic drug treatment was guided by either CYP test (CYP test-guided [CTG]) or structured clinical monitoring (SCM), in which adverse effects and factors influencing compliance were systematically recorded at least once quarterly, and 1 control group.

Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was antipsychotic drug persistence, ie, days to first modification of the initial treatment. Secondary outcomes were number of drug and dose changes, adverse effects, and psychotic symptoms, ie, hallucinations and delusions.

Results: A total of 528 participants were genotyped, and 311 (median [interquartile range {IQR} age, 41 [30-50] years; 139 [45%] women; median [IQR] duration of illness, 6 [3-13] years) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 study groups. Overall, 61 participants (20%) were extreme metabolizers. There was no difference in antipsychotic drug persistence between the CTG group and the control group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; 95% CI, 0.71-1.45) or SCM and the control group (HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.61-1.26). Subanalyses among extreme metabolizers showed similar results (CTG: HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.48-2.03; SCM: HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.44-1.96).

Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this randomized clinical trial do not support routine CYP testing in patients with schizophrenia.

Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT00707382.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJAMA network open
Issue number12
Pages (from-to)e2027909
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2020

ID: 61629248